PoliSci 111 - Final Study Guide

PoliSci 111 - Final Study Guide - Political Science 111...

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Political Science 111 Final Study Guide THE PRESIDENCY I. Two Versions of the Presidency - Article II establishes power of the president - Some powers are formal (in constitution) while others are informal (applied) - Head of State --- represents the nation - Head of Government --- domestic, executive and legislative power II. Formal Powers - Head of State o Commander in Chief --- highest military authority, head of intelligence agencies o Presidential pardons o Diplomatic powers --- make treaties, receives ambassadors - Head of Government o Executive Powers --- oversee enforcement of laws, appoints federal judges and officers o Domestic Military Powers --- protects states against violence within the U.S. o Quasi- Legislative Powers --- State of the Union**, Veto Power ** o War Powers --- has the greatest discretion on the issue of war, cannot declare war** - Limits to Formal Powers o Constitution builds safeguard against an all powerful president o Impeachment, need advice and consent of Senate to ratify, needs Congress to declare and fund war, spending bills originate in the House III. Informal Powers - persuasion - National Constituency --- Presidency is the only federal elected position elected by the whole nation - Agenda setting** - Center of attention for mass media IV. Historical Progression of Powers - Jackson --- founded modern Democratic party - Lincoln --- decisive action - T. Roosevelt --- bully pulpit, first to mobilize public support for his agenda - Wilson --- straight to the people - Nixon --- abuse of powers in office, congress exerted itself to check presidential powers, represents limits on the president - Reagan --- controlled his image to facilitate various programs getting passed or not - Clinton --- permanent campaign mode, constant polling and focus groups V. FDR and the Beginning of the Modern Presidency - used the media to reach the people rather than rely on congress or political parties - developed programs and increased the size of federal bureaucracy** - guaranteed working peoples’ rights to organize and join unions - devised entitlement programs linked to national interest groups - prior to FDR, the president wasn’t as much of a national figure as he is today** VI. American vs. Foreign Presidents - American presidents are stronger than other presidents o Power to veto legislation o Appoints own cabinet o Appoints federal judiciary with senate confirmation o Doesn’t share power with a Prime Minister - American presidents are weaker than other presidents o Can’t dissolve legislation at will o Doesn’t have complete veto power o Limited power to declare a state of emergency o Can be impeached 1
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Political Science 111 Final Study Guide VII. Contextual Influences of Power - presidents have more influence over Congress on foreign affairs vs. domestic affairs - historical era has an affect on presidential relations with Congress --- when a party is ascendant, relations are good and vice- versa VIII. Divided Government - congress is controlled by one party and the white house is controlled by another - relatively common in other western democracies - consequences: o
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