Midterm Exam Study Guide - 1 Political Science 111 Midterm...

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Political Science 111 Midterm Exam Study Guide General Theoretical Concepts I. What Governments Do - Inputs: public support, means of coercion, means of collecting revenue - Outputs: private goods, public goods o Private goods  – if I have it, you can’t o Public goods  – non- excludable, to provide public goods to government needs a means of coercion  and a means of revenue o free riding ” – public goods can’t be denied to anyone once they have been provided, some people do  all the work and everyone reaps the benefits - maintain order, protect property, promote economic growth, ensure safety, redistribute wealth, education,  protect civil and political rights II. Power and Purpose - “wherever there is scarcity or a need for tradeoffs or collective action, there is politics” - trade- offs  – we can’t do both x and y, which one do we choose? - Collective action  – in order to get things done, people must work together o Pooling of resources and coordination of efforts and activities by a group of people to achieve  common goals o Key action of government is to deal with collective action III. Forms of Government - autocracy  – a single individual rules - oligarchy  – small group controls most of the governing decisions - democracy  – citizens play a significant role in the governing process - constitutional  – system of rules that place formal and effective limits on the power of government - Institutions  -- rules and procedures that provide incentives for political behavior, *government is the formal  institutions through which a land and its people are ruled - Sovereignty  – monopoly on use of force within a well- defined territory - Politics  – struggles and conflicts over what people want IV. Five Principles of Government - all political behavior has a purpose - all politics is collective action - rules and procedures matter - political outcomes are the products of individual preferences and institutional procedures - history matters V Delegation - Principle- Agent Relationship o Delegate to cut the cost and burden of getting something done o The agent acts on behalf of the principle o Allows for more specialization in government o Problem: with more specialization, the agent becomes more knowledgeable than the principle Constitution 1775 – 1781 --- Revolutionary War 1776 --- Declaration of Independence 1777 --- Articles of Confederation 1787 --- Constitutional Convention 1788 – 1790 --- Constitution Ratified 1790 – now --- Constitution persists 1
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I. Declaration of Independence  - all men are created equal - preamble: “We the people of the United States, in order to form a  more perfect union …” -
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