NORMS - What's So Special About Science Merton Science is a...

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What’s So Special About Science? Merton : Science is a special community with a special set of norms which produces certified knowledge Popper : Science has a special method which separates science from other activities
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MERTON'S DEFINITION OF SCIENCE Science is used to denote a series of characteristic methods by means of which knowledge is certified; a stock of accumulated knowledge stemming from the application of these methods; a set of cultural values or norms governing the activities termed scientific.
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Norms are institutional imperatives , which are shared by members of a particular community. A norm is institutionalized when it is linked to the distribution of rewards .
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Conformity to a given set of institutional norms is maintained within a community, because it is regularly rewarded and because non-conformity is sanctioned .
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Honesty is a norm which is better institutionalized in American society than the norm of cheerfulness
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CUDOS Communism or Communalism : Full and open disclosure of scientific results Universalism : Acceptance and rejection of claims does not depend upon personal or social attributes of protagonist: race, class, religion, gender are irrelevant.
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CUDOS cont.
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