Chapter 1America before it was the New WorldNew Evvidence Suggests that humans arrived in North America between 18000 and 40000 years agoTheories of how people immigrated here from Asia include the land bridge called “Bergingia´that linked Siberia and Alaska. Based on linguistic evidence it is though there were 3 main waves of migration.It is possible that the other people sailed across the Atlantic from Southwestern EuropePre Columbian Indian CivilizationsThe first peoples in North America discovered an immense continent with extraordinary climatic and environmental diversity.By 1492 there were hundreds of tribes living in North America with an estimated 10 million people, more than 400 languages were spoken.Created trading networks that helped spread ideas, married people from other tribes,, and also engaged in warfare against other groupsSouthwestIn what is today the Southwest of the United States, several advanced agricultural civilizations flourished- among them the Hohokam, Mogollon and the Anasazi (Pueblo) peoples.The Anasazi are known for their cliff dwellings, hundreds of individual apartments carved in the sides of sandstone cliffs, and for innovative irrigation of their crops in the water-starved desert. The height of the Anasazi sophistication peaked around 1100 AD.Mississippians Contemporaneous with the Anasazi of the southwest were the miss. Cultures, which arose in thecentral river valley and along its tributaries. The Mississippians are generally considered one of the most highly sophisticated cultures of pre-Columbian North AmericaTexas TribesWest-apacheCentral-TonkaNorth-CommancheEast-caddo
Early Native American CultureDeveloped nature-centered religionsMasstered use of fire, improved hunting tools like spears, and domesticated dogs and turkeysCulture underwent a change with the development of farming(maize, beans, squash, chilli peppers, avocados, and pumpkins) were all grown. This led to increased population and allowedfor specialization of labor, complex architecture, detailed record keeping, improved irrigation techniques, better pottery, and ceramics.MesoAmerican and Andean CivilizationsAztec, Mayan, IncaMaya lived in southern Mexico and Guatemala. Advanced in Sccience, astronomy, and math.Aztecs lived in central mexico and built stonework, pyramids, and temples.Incas lived in the Andes Mountains in South America and connected their empire through an extensive road systemMesoAmericaIn now what is now southern mexico and Central AmericaRain forests cover the regionFertile soil made this a good area for ffarmingPeople first appeared in this area around 12000 BCMaize being grown around 3500 BCMayansRulers calimed to be descendants form the GodsMayan society had townspeople who were artisans, officials, ad merchants.