[United_Nations_University]_Diasporas_in_Conflict(BookZZ.org)

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Unformatted text preview: United Nations University Press is the publishing arm of the United Nations University. UNU Press publishes scholarly and policy-oriented books and periodicals on the issues facing the United Nations and its peoples and member states, with particular emphasis upon international, regional and trans-boundary policies. The United Nations University was established as a subsidiary organ of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution 2951 (XXVII) of 11 December 1972. It functions as an international community of scholars engaged in research, postgraduate training and the dissemination of knowledge to address the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are the concern of the United Nations and its agencies. Its activities are devoted to advancing knowledge for human security and development and are focused on issues of peace and governance and of environment and sustainable development. The University operates through a worldwide network of research and training centres and programmes, and its planning and coordinating centre in Tokyo. Diasporas in conflict Diasporas in conflict: Peace-makers or peace-wreckers? Edited by Hazel Smith and Paul Stares a United Nations University Press TOKYO u NEW YORK u PARIS 6 United Nations University, 2007 The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University. United Nations University Press United Nations University, 53-70, Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8925, Japan Tel: þ81-3-3499-2811 Fax: þ81-3-3406-7345 E-mail: [email protected] general enquiries: [email protected] United Nations University Office at the United Nations, New York 2 United Nations Plaza, Room DC2-2062, New York, NY 10017, USA Tel: þ1-212-963-6387 Fax: þ1-212-371-9454 E-mail: [email protected] United Nations University Press is the publishing division of the United Nations University. Cover design by Mea Rhee Printed in Hong Kong ISBN 978-92-808-1140-7 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Diasporas in conflict : peace-makers or peace-wreckers? / edited by Hazel Smith and Paul Stares. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-9280811407 (pbk.) 1. Emigration and immigration—Political aspects—Case studies. 2. Immigrants—Political activity—Case studies. 3. Conflict management— Case studies. 4. World politics—Case studies. I. Smith, Hazel, 1954– II. Stares, Paul B. JV6255.D53 2007 304.8—dc22 2007002607 Contents List of figures and tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii List of contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x Part I: The analytical and conceptual framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Diasporas in international conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hazel Smith 3 2 A neglected relationship: Diasporas and conflict resolution . . . . Jacob Bercovitch 17 3 Gender, diasporas and post–Cold War conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nadje S. Al-Ali 39 Part II: The case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4 The Jewish Diaspora and the Arab–Palestinian–Israeli conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gabriel Sheffer 65 5 The Palestinian diaspora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohammed A. Bamyeh 90 vi CONTENTS 6 The Armenian diaspora and the Karabagh conflict since 1988 . . . Khachig To¨lo¨lyan 106 7 A reluctant diaspora? The case of Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virginia M. Bouvier 129 8 The Cuban diaspora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean Grugel and Henry Kippin 153 9 The Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora: Sustaining conflict and pushing for peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Christine Fair 10 Kurdish interventions in the Iraq war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Denise Natali 172 196 11 The mobilized Croatian diaspora: Its role in homeland politics and war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zlatko Skrbisˇ 218 12 African diasporas and post-conflict reconstruction: An Eritrean case study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Khalid Koser 239 13 Political remittance: Cambodian diasporas in conflict and post conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Khatharya Um 253 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Figures and tables Figure 2.1 Conflict phases and approaches to conflict management . . . . Tables 2.1 The influences of a diaspora in different phases of a conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Categorization of individual and community activities by type and geographical focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Factors increasing individual capabilities to contribute to reconstruction in the home country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 29 244 249 vii Preface Diasporas matter in international conflict. That is the premise of this book and the basis upon which the research project that resulted in this book was conceived. The work was jointly undertaken by the United Nations University and the United States Institute of Peace after both institutions had independently begun to identify this under-studied topic as a potentially fruitful area of empirical and policy-relevant research. Our contributors, all distinguished scholars of diasporas, were each asked, not to produce new research on the diaspora per se, but to use their knowledge to think about diaspora intervention in international conflict. Our aim was to use case-study comparison to offer some tentative conclusions about the role, function and potential of diasporas in future conflicts. Contributors were therefore asked to write a case study that considered how a specific diaspora intervened in a specific international conflict. Crudely speaking, the question asked of our contributors was: ‘‘Was the particular diaspora you studied a peace-wrecker or a peace-maker?’’ The majority of the contributors met, most for the first time, in a research workshop in Macau in September 2004, to discuss their draft chapters. After a two-day vigorous exchange of views, contributors returned home to re-write their chapters. The outcome is this book, which argues that diasporas can be both peace-wreckers and peace-makers, sometimes at one and the same time. The question for policy-makers is, then, how to channel the positive contributions of diasporas so as to support conflict viii PREFACE ix resolution and also how to mitigate the impact of negative interventions by diasporas in conflict. We would like to thank all at United Nations University (UNU) in Tokyo and Macau and the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) in Washington, DC, who contributed to the project. We are particularly grateful to Yoshie Sawada in Tokyo and to Elise Murphy at USIP who between them organized the vast majority of the administrative work without which this book would not have been possible. We also thank our contributors, who gave their time, energy and intellectual efforts to make this volume possible. Hazel Smith and Paul Stares List of contributors Nadje S. Al-Ali is Senior Lecturer in Social Anthropology at the Institute of Arab & Islamic Studies at the University of Exeter, UK. She is specialized in gendered aspects of transnational migration and diaspora mobilization. Her publications include Secularism, Gender and the State in the Middle East (Cambridge University Press, 2000) and, as editor, New Approaches to Migration (Routledge, 2002). Mohammed A. Bamyeh is currently the Hubert Humphrey Professor of International Studies at Macalester College in Minnesota, USA. He is a former SSRC-MacArthur Fellow in International Peace and Security, and has previously taught at Georgetown University, New York University, SUNY-Buffalo, and the University of Massachusetts, USA. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of WisconsinMadison in 1990. He has written x many scholarly articles and his books include The Ends of Globalization (University of Minnesota Press, 2000), The Social Origins of Islam (University of Minnesota Press, 1999), and the edited special issue Palestine America (South Atlantic Quarterly, 2003). Jacob Bercovitch is Professor of International Relations at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. His current research interests include conflict resolution and international mediation. He is the author and editor of 10 books and numerous scientific papers, which have appeared in all the main journals. Virginia M. Bouvier is Senior Program Officer at the United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC, USA. She is editor of The Globalization of U.S.-Latin American Relations (Praeger Publishers, 2002), was CONTRIBUTORS previously on the faculty at the University of Maryland, USA, and holds her PhD in Latin American Studies from the University of California at Berkeley, USA. C. Christine Fair is Senior Research Associate at the United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC, USA, specializing in South Asian political and military affairs. Prior to joining USIP, she was a political scientist at RAND. Fair has an MA in Public Policy and a PhD in South Asian Languages and Civilizations, both from the University of Chicago, USA. Jean Grugel is Professor in the Department of Politics, University of Sheffield, UK. She has written widely on Latin American political economy and processes of democratization. She is currently working on global governance, transnational activism and children’s rights and the comparative political economy of governance after economic crisis. Henry Kippin is a postgraduate student in the Department of Politics, University of Sheffield, UK. He is working on the political economy of development. Khalid Koser is Deputy Director of the Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, USA. Previously he was Senior Policy Analyst at the Global Commission on International Migration and Lecturer in Human Geography at University College London, UK. Denise Natali is Honorary Fellow at the Institute for Arab and Islamic xi Studies, Exeter University, UK. She is currently teaching at the Department of Politics, University of Kurdistan, Arbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and is a fellowship recipient of the American Academic Research Institute in Iraq (TAARI). Natali is the author of numerous publications on Kurdish nationalism and politics, including The Kurds and the State: Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran (Syracuse University Press, 2005) and The Kurdish Quasi-State: Development and Dependency in Post-Gulf War Iraq (Syracuse University Press, forthcoming). Gabriel (Gabi) Sheffer is Professor in the Political Science department, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, and Senior Fellow at the Jerusalem Van Leer Institute. Sheffer was previously Director of the Jerusalem Group for National Planning, the Jerusalem Van Leer Institute; Director of the Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; editor of The Jerusalem Journal for International Relations; Visiting Professor at Cornell University, University of WisconsinMadison, University of California, Berkeley, New South Wales University, Australia, University of Pittsburgh and University of Maryland; and Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson Institute, Washington, DC. Zlatko Skrbisˇ is Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Director of Postgraduate Studies in the School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Australia. Prior to this appointment he was Lecturer at the xii CONTRIBUTORS Queensland University of Technology. His publications include Long-Distance Nationalism (Ashgate Publishing, 1999) and Constructing Singapore (with Michael Barr, NIAS Press, forthcoming 2006). Hazel Smith is Professor of International Relations at the University of Warwick, UK. Smith’s recent books include Hungry for Peace: International Security, Humanitarian Assistance and Social Change in North Korea (United States Institute of Peace Press, 2005) and the edited volume (with Larry Minear) Humanitarian Diplomacy: Practitioners and Their Craft (United Nations University Press, 2007). Paul Stares is Vice President of the United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC, USA, and Director of its Center for Conflict Analysis and Prevention. Prior to joining USIP in 2002, Stares was Associate Director and Senior Research Scholar at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University, USA. Khachig To¨lo¨lyan is Professor of Humanities at the Department of English and the College of Letters at Wesleyan University in Middletown, CT, USA. He founded and edits Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies. He writes in English and Armenian on theories of diaspora and on the Armenian diaspora. His earlier work dealt with terrorism, the modern novel and cultural theory. Khatharya Um is a political scientist and Associate Professor and Chair of Asian American Studies at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Her research interests include international migration, diaspora studies and human security. She has written extensively on politics and developments in Southeast Asia and refugee communities. Part I The analytical and conceptual framework 3 1 Diasporas in international conflict Hazel Smith The study of diasporas in conflict reflects an urgent international social problem. The capacity of some diasporas to secure tangible and intangible resources in support of armed conflicts, the often opaque institutional and network structures that can allow for transnational transfers of arms and money to state and non-state actors, including terrorist groups, as well as to more deserving causes (for instance as humanitarian assistance), along with rapid transnational communication, mean that, in the era of globalization, diasporas have been reconstructed as new and potentially powerful actors in international politics. A large body of excellent scholarship has investigated the notion of diaspora, not least that by many contributors to this book, including Nadje Al-Ali, Khalid Koser, Gabriel Sheffer, Zlatko Skrbisˇ and Khachig To¨lo¨lyan.1 Others who have made seminal contributions include, for instance, Avtar Brah, Robin Cohen and William Safran.2 There is less research explicitly on the role of diasporas in conflict, with major exceptions being the work of Yossi Shain and of Paul Collier and his colleagues at the World Bank.3 This book is intended to supplement this latter literature by offering a comparative study of diasporas in international conflict, informed by an explicit analytical and conceptual framework, which is set out in Chapters 2 and 3, and based on detailed empirical case studies. Theoretically, the book invades the discipline of political science and international relations and establishes a conflict resolution analytical framework. Conceptually, the book supports the view that it is difDiasporas in conflict: Peace-makers or peace-wreckers?, Smith and Stares (eds), United Nations University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-92-808-1140-7 4 HAZEL SMITH ficult to offer an unproblematic shared understanding of the concept of diaspora but also takes as a premise that there is enough commonality of understanding of the concept that a comparative investigation of patterns of diaspora interventions in conflicts makes sense. The key empirical research question that contributors were asked to respond to was: ‘‘In the case of a specific conflict, how did the diaspora respond? Were they peace-wreckers or peace-makers?’’ This volume has three core objectives. These are normative, empirical and policy related. The normative objective is to find ways to encourage peaceful resolution to conflicts through the active and positive intervention of diasporas and to discourage intervention that fuels conflicts. The empirical objective is to chart and analyse diaspora interventions in conflict and to see if any cautious generalizations may be made about such interventions. The policy objective is to identify leverage points in the different stages of conflict such that constructive interventions by diasporas may be encouraged and destructive interventions discouraged. The theoretical framework This book investigates the diverse roles of diasporas in different phases of what conflict resolution theorists sometimes call the ‘‘conflict cycle’’, as outlined by Jacob Bercovitch in Chapter 2 of this book.4 The book therefore starts with an explicit conflict cycle framework that incorporates analytically separate but practically related normative, conceptual, empirical and policy lenses. Contributors to the volume also attempt definitional tasks to allow for taxonomies of diasporas and diasporic activity in conflict. Sheffer, for instance, whose work is cited by a number of our contributors and who also writes in this volume in Chapter 4 on the Jewish Diaspora, refers to a fundamental difference between state-linked and stateless diasporas. He identifies the development of diasporas as historical phenomena – arguing for three historical waves of diasporic formation. These are the ‘‘historical’’ diasporas, formed in pre-modern times; the ‘‘new’’ diasporas, formed since the industrial revolution; and, lastly, the ‘‘incipient ethnonational’’ diasporas – those of very recent origin. Sheffer further argues that a fruitful way to frame the analysis of diaspora activity ‘‘at home abroad’’ is to conceive of the ‘‘diaspora profile’’. This includes identification patterns, strategies towards host counties, organizational activities and transnational activities. DIASPORAS IN INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT 5 The conceptual framework The conceptual foundation more or less assumes that diasporas are social groups that (i) settle and establish themselves in another country and (ii) are internally heterogeneous. Different parts of the same diaspora can and do have different interests, defined among other things by class, gender, generation, occupation or religion. Diasporas are rarely constituted by a single factor other than the broadest of connections to a specific homeland. Diasporas are not, for instance, defined by their religion. The Palestinian diaspora provides a good example of where one marker of difference is that between Christian and Muslim. Diasporas involve a complex of always shifting power relations. Change in relations of power within diasporas, and the way these changes intersect with external configurations of power, provide much of the conceptual framework for this book. Although this book is multidisciplinary, it nevertheless adopts a political science perspective, which is essentially concerned with ‘‘who gets what, where, when and how and who is advantaged and disadvantaged in this process’’ – the classic questions of political analysis. We assume that the outcomes of shifting power relations are consequential in answering...
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