Egypt-FP.docx - Egypt Security and Economy Mark Cooper \u2018The transformation of Egypt\u2019 Cooper argues that regardless of doctrine and policy leaders

Egypt-FP.docx - Egypt Security and Economy Mark Cooper...

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Egypt: Security and Economy Mark Cooper, ‘The transformation of Egypt’ Cooper argues that regardless of doctrine and policy, leaders and the extent of foreign aid, the underlying structural problems were too great for gov to overcome. Major decisions on FP grew out of internal problems internal affairs of Egypt were as important in directing political events as were international affairs. Post 1952 marked by two dramatic international events: the ME war of June 1967 and Sadat’s “mission of peace” to Jerusalem in Nov 1977. But internal factors are as important a cause of international manoeuvres. The crisis of the etatist regime in the mid-1960s was a critical factor in causing the 1967 war and a crisis of the semi-liberal regime in the mid-1970s was critical factor in causing the efforts to achieve peace in 1977. By understanding the nature of both regimes, the dynamics of their crises and the links between them, we can understand the startling change that occurred in international events. Importance of domestic Egyptian factors in creating both internal and external crises. The political eco created the pressures which seem to have undermined its health. Transformation of the political economy had a tremendous impact. It was institutions that created the conditions for change. Institutions, weak as they were, sustained the regime through the defeat of June 1967 and the death of Nasser in sept 1970. Few regimes survive a defeat of this magnitude and even fewer survive their leader’s death. Yet the regime in Egypt survive both. It transformed from within: liberalisation of the economy and the polity simultaneously. This book offers an interpretation that links the nature of the political and eco pressures placed on the regime in the 1967-77 period to the nature and juxtaposition of the institutions through which those pressures played. Causes and consequences of the 1967 war: Nasser began to gamble in international affairs in order to relieve the pressure that were building on his regime: it was an attempt to pull off a foreign policy move as a solution to domestic problems domestic crisis before the war. The problem was the political economy (breakdown of state capitalism alliance) thus precarious negotiating position. After the war, defeat increased the pressure on the regime. Escalation of conflict with the elite, rise in anti-regime violence. This change from below forced the regime to restructure the political eco Liberalisation as a result: eco would be liberalised, more private activity and depoliticization of the public sector to try to quiet the domestic scene by turning away from ‘dogmatic socialism’ but did not produce any real eco improvement. Nasser’s legacy was a guarantee of instability: symbolic and emotional void. The regime survived but it did not thrive. Inability to make far-reaching changes and to accomplish a great deal. The search for domestic solutions was halting and its tendency to turn to external manoeuvres to relieve the pressure was reinforced.
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