Week of April 9 - April 9 2007 Vocabulary Jean-Jacques...

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April 9, 2007 Vocabulary: Jean-Jacques Rousseau - his name is traditionally invoked along with that of Voltaire as  representative of the French Enlightenment and as an individual instrumental in preparing  the way ideologically for the French Revolution. His ideas contributed to the rise of  Romanticism.  King Charles IV of Spain - Ferdinand VII - Bourbon Restoration - Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies  restored the  Bourbon Dynasty  to the French throne. The ensuing period is called the  Restauration,  following French usage, and is characterized by a sharp conservative  reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French  politics. I. The Third of May,1808 a. Francisco Goya b. Romanticism  c. 1814 d. This image is striking because it doesn’t appear to be something Romantic, but  the meaning of the word was different then than it is today e. Romanticism comes from literature f. Neoclassicism and Romanticism overlap g. In general, Romanticism emphasizes the imagination and emotional  h. Neoclassicism emphasizes the hero, actions, and examples i. Romanticism becomes a reaction to all the reason of Neoclassicism  j. Ideas of the Enlightenment is seen as forming the ideas of Neoclassicism; but it  also formed the Romanticism ideas as well k. Consider Romanticism because of the expression  l. Goya depicted this as it would have really been m. Enlightenment thinking led to uprisings and the Revolution n. Neoclassicism idea comes from ideas of Sir Isaac Newton and John Locke- reason o. Rousseau ideas about freedom were taken by the Romantics in a different way  than the Neoclassicism followers p. Seemed like reason had been abandoned during  q. The Romantics start looking toward the imagination and emotion i. They believed that if you were going to depict something, depict it as it  happened, not sugar coated with a hero or an example r. Goya did this in The Third of May
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s. In emotional fashion, Goya depicted the anonymous murderous wall of  Napoleonic soldiers ruthlessly executing the unarmed and terrified Spanish  peasants. t. The artist encouraged viewer empathy for the Spanish by portraying horrified  expressions and anguish on their faces, endowing them with humanity absent  from the firing squad.  u. The peasant about to be shot throws his arms out in a cruciform gesture  reminiscent of Christ’s position on the cross.  v. Goya included himself in the Royal circle in Spanish painting when he painted  the portrait of Ferdinand VII and family w. On May 2, 1808, the Spanish revolt against Napoleon’s French troops  x.
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