CADCAMCIM Radhakrishnan Subramanyan and Raju- By EasyEngineering.net.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Downloaded From : ww w.E a syE ngi ne eri ng. ne Downloaded From : Downloaded From : ww w.E asy E ngi nee rin g.n e Downloaded From : Downloaded From : ww This page w.Eintentionally left as blank yE ngi nee rin g.n e Downloaded From : Downloaded From : ww w.E asy E ngi nee rin g.n e Downloaded From : Downloaded From : ww w.E asy E Copyright © 2008, 2000, 1994, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. ngi nee rin g.n e No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to [email protected] ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2711-0 PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at Downloaded From : Downloaded From : PREFACE ww w.E asy E Manufacturing managers and engineers are ever concerned with improvement in quality, reduction in both manufacturing cost and delivery time. The globalization of economy requires introduction of new products with enhanced features at competitive costs. Another challenge is the reduction in product life span. This necessitates considerable time compression in product development cycle. Yet another significant trend is mass customization which calls for extreme flexibility in manufacturing. The massive outsourcing in manufacturing is another important development in recent years. ngi The new edition of CAD/CAM/CIM has been bought out to focus on the response of CIM technology to address to these challenges. Manufacturing in the new millennium is moving towards more and more sophistication in exploiting the capabilities of computer hardware and software. Robust design methodologies and integration of shape design and functional design are included in the present edition. Optimized manufacturing is a possibility now with the extensive use of FEA. Apart from design optimization, FEA is used to model and simulate complex manufacturing processes to evolve several iterations. This enables engineers to make right parts first time every time. An additional chapter on simulation softwares has been added in the present edition to introduce this powerful tool to the students. nee rin g.n e The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of our erstwhile colleagues in the PSG CAD/CAM Centre as well as Krishnaveni and Sasikala in word processing the earlier editions and Govindaswamy for helping with some chapters in the present edition. Acknowledgements are due to K.J. Reddy for providing some models for reproduction in this edition and to Pradeep for critical suggestions. The excellent support and encouragement extended by Padmini, Anitha and Hari during the revision of this edition is gratefully acknowledged. P. Radhakrishnan S. Subramanian V. Raju Downloaded From : Downloaded From : ww This page w.Eintentionally left as blank yE ngi nee rin g.n e Downloaded From : Downloaded From : CONTENTS ww w.E asy E PREFACE (v) 1. COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 INTRODUCTION TYPES OF MANUFACTURING EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING CIM HARDWARE AND CIM SOFTWARE NATURE AND ROLE OF THE ELEMENTS OF CIM SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT OF CIM ngi 2. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CIM 1 1 3 4 6 7 10 nee rin g.n e 13 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE 2.3 SEQUENTIAL ENGINEERING 2.4 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 2.5 COMPARISON OF CONCURRENT ENGINEERING AND SEQUENTIAL ENGINEERING 2.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 2.7 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2.8 SOFT AND HARD PROTOTYPING 2.9 CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 2.10 KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF CE 2.11 EXAMPLE OF CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 2.12 TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE MANUFACTURABILITY AND REDUCE LEAD TIME 2.13 IMPROVING THE DESIGN 2.14 TAGUCHI METHOD FOR ROBUST DESIGN 2.15 VALUE ENGINEERING 2.16 PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT 13 13 16 18 19 21 23 25 25 26 26 27 32 34 34 35 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents viii 3. PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS 41 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 GRAPHIC PRIMITIVES 3.3 POINT PLOTTING 3.4 DRAWING OF LINES 3.5 BRESENHAM’S CIRCLE ALGORITHM 3.6 ELLIPSE 3.7 TRANSFORMATION IN GRAPHICS 3.8 CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS USED IN GRAPHICS AND WINDOWING 3.9 VIEW PORT 3.10 2-D TRANSFORMATIONS 3.11 HOMOGENEOUS TRANSFORMATIONS 3.12 COMBINATION TRANSFORMATIONS 3.13 CLIPPING 3.14 3-DIMENSIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS 3.15 PROJECTIONS 3.16 SCAN CONVERSION 3.17 RENDERING 3.18 RASTERIZING POLYGONS 3.19 HIDDEN SURFACE REMOVAL 3.20 ANTI ALIASING 3.21 REFLECTION 3.22 SHADING 3.23 GENERATION OF CHARACTERS ww w.E asy E ngi 4. COMPUTER HARDWARE 41 42 43 43 47 55 55 55 56 56 60 61 63 63 64 66 69 69 70 72 73 75 76 nee rin g.n e 77 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS 4.3 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS 4.4 DATA COMMUNICATIONS 4.5 DESIGN WORK STATIONS 4.6 ARCHITECTURE OF A TYPICAL GRAPHICS WORKSTATION 4.7 INTERACTIVE DISPLAY DEVICES 4.8 INPUT DEVICES 4.9 OUTPUT DEVICES 77 78 79 83 89 90 93 97 100 5. OPERATING SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENTS 103 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 INTRODUCTION OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) COMPARISON OF COMMANDS IN POPULAR OPERATING SYSTEMS UNIX - OPERATING SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF UNIX SYSTEM 103 104 106 108 109 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES (WINDOWS ENVIRONMENT) MS WINDOWS WINDOWS NT LINUX 6. GEOMETRIC MODELING TECHNIQUES 121 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 GEOMETRIC MODELING 6.3 SALIENT FEATURES OF SOLID MODELING 6.4 COMMAND, MENU AND ICON DRIVEN SOFTWARES 6.5 FEATURES OF A DRAFTING PACKAGE 6.6 DRAWING UTILITIES 6.7 ENTITIES 6.8 EDIT COMMANDS 6.9 BLOCKS AND SYMBOLS 6.10 DISPLAY 6.11 CROSS HATCHING AND PATTERN FILLING 6.12 DIMENSIONING 6.13 ENQUIRY COMMANDS 6.14 3-D DRAWINGS 6.15 PLOTTING A DRAWING 6.16 CONFIGURING THE DRAFTING SOFTWARE 6.17 CUSTOMISATION 6.18 DRAWING INTERCHANGE FILES 6.19 DRAWING OFFICE MANAGEMENT 6.20 SURFACE MODELING 6.21 REPRESENTATION OF CURVES AND SURFACES 6.22 DESIGN OF CURVED SHAPES 6.23 CUBIC SPLINES 6.24 BEZIER CURVES 6.25 B-SPLINES 6.26 NURBS AND B-SPLINES 6.27 REPRESENTATION OF SURFACES 6.28 DESIGN OF SURFACES 6.29 PARAMETRIC DESIGN OF SURFACES 6.30 BICUBIC POLYNOMIAL SURFACE PATCHES 6.31 BEZIER BICUBIC SURFACE PATCHES 6.32 CUBIC B-SPLINE SURFACES 6.33 SURFACE MODELING IN COMMERCIAL DRAFTING AND MODELING SOFTWARE 6.34 THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROCESS 6.35 SKETCHING THE GEOMETRY 6.36 UNDERSTANDING CURVE AND SURFACE DESIGN 6.37 OTHER FEATURES USEFUL FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 6.38 DATA TRANSFER TO OTHER SOFTWARES ww w.E asy E 113 114 115 120 ngi 121 123 128 136 138 139 142 143 143 144 144 145 146 147 149 149 149 150 150 152 154 155 156 159 161 162 163 163 163 164 165 166 166 174 176 177 185 185 Contents 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 ix nee rin g.n e Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents x 7. FINITE ELEMENT MODELING AND ANALYSIS IN CIM 189 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 GENERAL STEPS INVOLVED IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 7.3 TYPES OF ANALYSIS 7.4 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 7.5 INFLUENCE COEFFICIENTS 7.6 ELEMENT AND STRUCTURE STIFFNESS EQUATIONS 7.7 ASSEMBLY OF ELEMENTS 7.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS PACKAGES 7.9 GENERAL STRUCTURE OF A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 7.10 ARCHITECTURE OF FINITE ELEMENT SOFTWARE 7.11 USING A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS PACKAGE FOR SIMPLE PROBLEMS 7.12 ELEMENTS IN A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS SOFTWARE 7.13 EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION USING A SOFTWARE 7.14 MANUFACTURING APPLICATIONS 7.15 WELDING SIMULATION 7.16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS TO METAL FORMING 7.17 SIMULATION OF HEAT TRATMENT 7.18 PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING 189 191 193 195 196 196 212 215 216 221 222 223 228 242 243 244 245 245 8. CIM DATA BASE AND DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 247 ww w.E asy E ngi 8.1 INTRODUCTION 8.2 DATABASE REQUIREMENTS OF CIM 8.3 DATA BASE 8.4 DATABASE MANAGEMENT 8.5 FEATURES OF A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 8.6 DATABASE MODELS 8.7 DBMS ARCHITECTURE 8.8 QUERY LANGUAGE 8.9 STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE [SQL] 8.10 SQL AS A KNOWLEDGE BASE QUERY LANGUAGE 8.11 PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT (PDM) 8.12 ADVANTAGES OF PDM nee rin g.n e 247 249 249 251 251 252 255 255 256 257 258 260 9. COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 263 INTRODUCTION PROCESS PLANNING STRUCTURE OF A PROCESS PLANNING SOFTWARE INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR PROCESS PLANNING OPERATION OF A TYPICAL COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING SOFTWARE CAD BASED PROCESS PLANNING - CERTAIN LIMITATIONS AND PROBLEMS GROUP TECHNOLOGY 263 263 266 266 267 270 272 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents 9.8 CODING STRUCTURES 9.9 OPITZ CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 9.10 THE MICLASS SYSTEM 9.11 THE CODE SYSTEM 9.12 BENEFITS OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY 9.13 PROCESS SELECTION 9.14 EXPERIENCE-BASED PLANNING 9.15 HAND BOOKS/DATA BOOKS/MANUALS 9.16 DECISION TABLES AND DECISION TREES 9.17 PROCESS CAPABILITY 9.18 METHODS OF COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING 9.19 VARIANT PROCESS PLANNING 9.20 GENERATIVE PROCESS PLANNING 9.21 IMPLEMENTATION CONSIDERATIONS 9.22 PROCESS PLANNING SYSTEMS ww w.E asy E 10. PLANNING OF RESOURCES FOR MANUFACTURING THROUGH INFORMATION SYSTEMS 274 275 277 277 277 279 279 280 280 280 282 282 284 288 289 Contents xi 293 10.1 INTRODUCTION 293 10.2 BACKGROUND 294 10.3 ROLE OF MRP-II IN A CIM SYSTEM 295 10.4 MAJOR MODULES OF A MANUFACTURING RESOURCES PLANNING (MRP) SOFTWARE 296 10.5 MANUFACTURING APPLICATIONS 296 10.6 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 304 10.7 FINANCIAL APPLICATIONS 307 10.8 MARKETING APPLICATIONS 311 10.9 MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS 313 10.10 COMMON ACRONYMS USED IN AN MRP-II ENVIRONMENT 314 10.11 STATUS OF MRP-II SOFTWARE 314 10.12 DYNAMIC ENTERPRISES 315 10.13 ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) 316 10.14 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 320 10.15 VIRTUAL MANUFACTURING 322 10.16 SELECTION OF AN ERP PACKAGE 322 10.17 ERP IN INDIA 323 10.18 DYNAMIC ENTERPRISE MODELLING (DEM) 323 ngi nee rin g.n e 11. MANUFACTURING AUTOMATION 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 INTRODUCTION TYPES OF AUTOMATION SYSTEMS PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS PARTS OF A TYPICAL PLC SYSTEM OPERATION OF A PLC 327 327 328 329 332 333 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents xii 11.6 PROGRAMMING OF PLC 11.7 EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION OF PLC IN A CNC MACHINE 11.8 FACTORY LEVEL CONTROL 12. CNC MACHINE TOOLS 341 12.1 INTRODUCTION 12.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF A NUMERICAL CONTROLLED MACHINE 12.3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 12.4 TYPES OF CNC MACHINES 12.5 FEATURES OF CNC SYSTEMS 12.6 DIRECT NUMERICAL CONTROL (DNC) 12.7 FUNCTIONS AVAILABLE IN A TYPICAL CNC SYSTEM 12.8 STANDARD CONTROLLERS 12.9 SOME OF THE FEATURES AVAILABLE IN TYPICAL HIGH END CNC SYSTEM 12.10 GENERAL PROGRAMMING FEATURES OF CNC SYSTEMS 12.11 PROGRAMMING OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS 12.12 HINTS FOR PROGRAMMING 12.13 EXAMPLE OF PROGRAMMING A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTRE 12.14 CNC TURNING A GEAR BLANK 12.15 CNC TURNING A CASTING 12.16 CNC PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND VIRTUAL MACHINING USING CAM TECHNOLOGY 12.17 TECHNOLOGY OF CAM 12.18 PROCEDURE OF CAM 12.19 MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS 12.20 TOOL MOTION PARAMETERS 12.21 AUXILIARY NC SEQUENCES 12.22 CL DATA FILES 12.23 NC POST-PROCESSING 12.24 VIRTUAL MACHINING 12.25 SUMMARY ww 333 335 338 w.E asy E ngi 341 342 351 353 373 379 384 386 387 389 403 414 423 431 442 451 454 455 459 462 463 463 464 464 465 nee rin g.n e 13. ROBOTS IN COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF A ROBOT TYPES OF ROBOTS PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES PROGRAMMING ROBOTS GEOMETRIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CAD/ROBOT LINKAGE SIMULATION ADAPTIVE CONTROL ROBOT OPERATION 471 471 472 474 481 484 493 494 494 495 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents 13.10 ENDS-OF-ARM-TOOLING 13.11 CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATION 13.12 APPLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS 13.13 THE INTEGRATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOT INTO A CIM SYSTEM 13.14 PRESENTATION OF WORK TO ROBOTS 13.15 PRODUCT DESIGN FOR AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURE BY ROBOTS 13.16 MANUFACTURERS OF ROBOTS 14. COMPUTER AIDED QUALITY CONTROL ww 505 14.1 INTRODUCTION 14.2 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) 14.3 QC AND CIM 14.4 INSPECTION AND TESTING 14.5 STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) 14.6 OBJECTIVES OF CAQC 14.7 ROLE OF COMPUTER IN QC 14.8 COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE 14.9 NON-CONTACT INSPECTION METHODS 14.10 POST PROCESS METROLOGY 14.11 COMPUTER AIDED INSPECTION USING ROBOTS 14.12 INTEGRATED COMPUTER AIDED INSPECTION SYSTEMS 14.13 FLEXIBLE INSPECTION SYSTEM (FIS) w.E asy E ngi 15. FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORKING 496 496 496 500 501 501 502 505 506 507 508 509 509 509 510 512 516 517 518 520 Contents xiii nee rin g.n e 523 15.1 INTRODUCTION 15.2 PRINCIPLES OF NETWORKING 15.3 NETWORK TECHNIQUES 15.4 LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) 15.5 COMPONENTS OF A SMALL LOCAL AREA NETWORK 15.6 NETWORK WIRING METHODS 15.7 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS 15.8 NETWORKING STANDARDS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT 15.9 EXAMPLES OF NETWORK STANDARDS 15.10 ETHERNET 15.11 ISSUES IN INTER-SYSTEM COMMUNICATION 15.12 NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS 15.13 SYSTEM SECURITY 15.14 MANAGING REMOTE SYSTEMS IN A NETWORK 15.15 DESIGN ACTIVITY IN A NETWORKED ENVIRONMENT 15.16 ENGINEERING CHANGE CONTROL 15.17 NETWORKING IN A MANUFACTURING COMPANY 15.18 NETWORK FILE SYSTEM (NFS) 523 523 526 526 528 529 532 533 536 537 538 540 541 541 542 542 542 543 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents xiv 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 INTERNET HARDWARE ELEMENTS OF A NETWORK ATM (ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE) NETWORKS ENTERPRISE WIDE NETWORK DOCUMENT AND WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A CASE STUDY OF APPLICATION OF GLOBAL NETWORKING 16. COLLABORATIVE ENGINEERING 565 16.1 INTRODUCTION 16.2 FASTER DESIGN THRUOGHPUT 16.3 WEB BASED DESIGN 16.4 CHANGING DESIGN APPROACHES 16.5 EXTENDED ENTERPRISES 16.6 SOFTWARE FOR COLLABORATIVE DESIGN AND ENTERPRISE-WIDE PRODUCT VISUALIZATION ww 548 551 554 555 557 562 w.E asy E 17. GRAPHIC STANDARDS 565 566 567 568 571 572 575 17.1 INTRODUCTION 17.2 STANDARDS FOR GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING 17.3 FEATURES OF GKS 17.4 OTHER GRAPHICS STANDARDS 17.5 PHIGS 17.6 OPENGL 17.7 PARASOLID 17.8 ACIS 17.9 EXCHANGE OF CAD DATA BETWEEN SOFTWARE PACKAGES 17.10 DXF FILES 17.11 INITIAL GRAPHICS EXCHANGE SPECIFICATION (IGES) GRAPHICS STANDARD 17.12 PRODUCT DATA EXCHANGE SPECIFICATION (PDES) 17.13 OTHER DATA EXCHANGE FORMATS 17.1.4 PRODUCT DATA TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR COMPUTER AIDED CONCURRENT ENGINEERING ngi 575 576 576 578 578 580 581 583 584 585 587 590 590 nee rin g.n e 18. CIM MODELS 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 590 597 INTRODUCTION ESPRIT - CIM OSA MODEL THE NIST - AMRF HIERARCHICAL MODEL THE SIEMENS MODEL OF CIM THE CIM MODEL OF DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION THE IBM CONCEPT OF CIM PRESENT SCENARIO 597 599 601 602 603 604 607 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Contents xv 609 19.1 INTRODUCTION 19.2 SUBSYSTEMS OF FMS 19.3 SCOPE OF FMS 19.4 FMS COMPARED TO OTHER TYPES OF MANUFACTURING APPROACHES 19.5 TYPES OF FMS 19.6 BENEFITS OF FMS 19.7 MAJOR ELEMENTS OF FMS 19.8 OPTIMISATION OF FMS 19.9 OPERATIONAL ELEMENTS OF A TYPICAL FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING CELL 19.10 TYPICAL FMS LAYOUT 19.11 FMS DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA ww w.E asy E 20. SHOP FLOOR DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS 20.1 INTRODUCTION 20.2 SHOP FLOOR CONTROL 20.3 SHOP FLOOR DATA COLLECTION 20.4 TYPES OF DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS 20.5 DATA INPUT TECHNIQUES 20.6 AUTOMATIC DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM 20.7 BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY 20.8 OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION 20.9 MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION 20.10 VOICE RECOGNITION 20.11 SMART CARDS 20.12 DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS (DAS) 641 641 643 646 646 647 648 648 650 651 651 651 652 ngi 21. SIMULATION IN MANUFACTURING 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 nee rin g.n e 653 INTRODUCTION TYPES OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES OF SIMULATION SIMULATION PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS SIMULATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES APPLICATION OF SIMULATION PROCEDURE FOR SIMULATION USING SOFTWARE INDEX 609 610 611 611 612 620 622 627 628 638 639 Contents 19. FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS 653 654 655 656 656 657 659 667 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : ww This page w.Eintentionally left as blank yE ngi nee rin g.n e Downloaded From : Downloaded From : CHAPTER COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING ww  An overview of CIM is presented in this chapter. A brief account of the evolution of CIM is included. The major functions carried out in a manufacturing plant are surveyed and the different levels of integration are identified. w.E asy E 1.1 INTRODUCTION Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) encompasses the entire range of product development and manufacturing activities with all the functions being carried out with the help of dedicated software packages. The data required for various functions are passed from one application software to another in a seamless manner. For example, the product data is created during design. This data has to be transferred from the modeling software to manufacturing software without any loss of data. CIM uses a common database wherever feasible and communication technologies to integrate design, manufacturing and associated business functions that combine the automated segments of a factory or a manufacturing facility. CIM reduces the human component of manufacturing and thereby relieves the process of its slow, expensive and error-prone component. CIM stands for a holistic and methodological approach to the activities of the manufacturing enterprise in order to achieve vast improvement in its performance. ngi nee rin g.n e This methodological approach is applied to all activities from the design of the product to customer support in an integrated way, using various methods, means and techniques in order to achieve production improvement, cost reduction, fulfillment of scheduled delivery dates, quality improvement and total flexibility in the manufacturing system. CIM requires all those associated with a company to involve totally in the process of product development and manufacture. In such a holistic approach, economic, social and human aspects have the same importance as technical aspects. CIM also encompasses the whole lot of enabling technologies including total quality management, business process reengineering, concurrent engineering, workflow automation, enterprise resource planning and flexible manufacturing. A distinct feature of manufacturing today is mass customization. This implies that though the products are manufactured in large quantities, products must incorporate Downloaded From : Downloaded From : CAD/CAM/CIM 2 customer-specific changes to satisfy the diverse requirements of the customers. This requires extremely high flexibility in the manufacturing system. The challenge before the manufacturing engineers is illustrated in Fig.1.1. QUALITY ww w.E asy E COST DELIVERY TIME ngi Fig.1.1 Challenges in Manufacturing Manufacturing industries strive to reduce the cost of the product continuously to remain competitive in the face of global competition. In addition, there is the need to improve the quality and performance levels on a continuing basis. Another important requirement is on time delivery. In the context of global outsourcing and long supply chains cutting across several international borders, the task of continuously reducing delivery times is really an arduous task. CIM has several software tools to address the above needs. nee rin g.n e Manufacturing engineers are required to achieve the following objectives to be competitive in a global context. • • • • • Reduction in inventory Lower the cost of the product Reduce waste Improve quality Increase flexibility in manufacturing to achieve immediate and rapid response to: • Product changes • Production changes • Process change • Equipment change • Change of personnel CIM technology is an enabling technology to meet the above challenges to the manufacturing. Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Computer Integrated Manufacturing The advances in automation have enabled industries to develop islands of automation....
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