Western Civilization Chapter 11 - Background Info u25cf...

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Background Info:Mongols had empire from Russia to ChinaStabilized trade routesAvenues for spread of bubonic plagueHenry Knighton observed the followingPlague struck even isolated monasteriesAnimals were affectedPrice of everything became cheaperLabor wages increased- grain rotted for lack of harvestingwhole villages disappearedOut of this dissolution came the RenaissanceBlack Death + Social CrisisTowards the end of the 13th century, Europe entered a period known as a “little ice age”1315-1317 heavy rains in northern Europe destroyed famine, causing famineFamine from this time led to malnutrition, which cause higher susceptibility to disease (explains high mortality rates during Black Death)Black Death:Struck Asia, North Africa, but primarily EuropeBubonic plague: spread by black rats infected with “Yersinia pestis”Rats accompanying Mongol troops spread the plague to ChinaIn the 13th century, the Mongols had brought most of the Eurasian landmass under a single rule, which helped facilitate long distance tradeHelped a movement of people spread the plageBlack Death in Europe:Mid-14th centurySymptoms of bubonic plagueHigh fever, aching joints, swelling of lymph nodes, dark blotchesSymptoms of pneumonic plagueBacterial infection spread to lungs, leading to severe coughing, bloody sputumPlague reached Europe in 1347Genoese merchants brought it from Caffa to SicilyReached southern Italy/south France/Spain by the end of 13471348- plague spread to France, Low Countries and GermanyRavaged England in 1349End of 1349, plague expanded to northern Europe/ScandinaviaEast Europe/Russia were affected in 1351Mortality rates were higher in west/central Europe than EastItaly, France, England, and Germany were hit especially hardEuropean population did not recover until 1500Causes of Black Death: Contemporary Views:Giovanni Boccacio’s DecameronEarthquake fumes
Jews planned to wipe out Christians with poisoned wellsMany Jews confessedMany accepted Baptism out of fearCan explain why many Jews are still persecutedLife and Death: Reactions to the PlaguePeople threw themselves into alcoholic/sexual orgiesWealthy flew to countryside estatesMany believed the plague was sent to them as punishment by God, and thus subjected themselves to extreme asceticism in the form of flagellant groupsFlagellants: men/women that flogged themselves with whips to win the forgiveness of GodCatholic Church became concerned when these groups began to kill Jews/attack clergyPope Clement VI condemned the flagellants in October 1349; by the end of 1350, most of the flagellant movement had been destroyedPogroms: organized massacres against JewsEastern Europe became home to huge Jewish communitiesSurvivors began to treat life as something cheap/transientPost plague Europe had a morbid preoccupation with death

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