01-STUDENT Chapter 2 Bus System v1 20120911.pdf - BIT20303 Computer Architecture <CHAPTER 2> BUS SYSTEM 2.1 COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER 2 Program Concept

01-STUDENT Chapter 2 Bus System v1 20120911.pdf - BIT20303...

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BIT20303 Computer Architecture <CHAPTER 2> BUS SYSTEM
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2.1 COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER 2
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Program Concept Hardware systems are inflexible Hardware system is a configuration of logic components which is constructed to perform a particular computation. This set of hardware will perform various functions on data depending on control signals applied to the hardware. The resulting “program” is in the form of hardware and is termed a hardwired program. Suppose we have a general purpose hardware that can do different tasks, given correct control signals; then instead of rewiring, supply a new set of control signals 3
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Hardware vs Software Hardware Software Definition Devices that are required to store and execute (or run) the software. Collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer. Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). Types Input,storage,processing,control, and output devices. System software, Programming software, and Application software. Examples CD-ROM, monitor, printer, video card, scanners , label makers, routers , and modems. Quickbooks, Adobe Acrobat, Winoms-Cs, Internet Explorer , Microsoft Word , Microsoft Excel Function Hardware serve as the delivery system for software solutions. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, in comparison with software and data, which are “soft” in the sense that they are readily created, modified, or erased on the comput To perform the specific task you need to complete. Software is generally not needed to for the hardware to perform its basic level tasks such as turning on and reponding to input. Inter dependency Hardware starts functioning once software is loaded. To deliver its set of instructions, Software is installed on hardware. Failure Hardware failure is random. Hardware does have increasing failure at the last stage. Software failure is systematic. Software does not have an increasing failure rate. Durability Hardware wears out over time. Software does not wear out over time. However, bugs are discovered in software as time passes. Nature Hardware is physical in nature. Software is logical in nature. BIT20303-Computer Architecture 4
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What is a program? 5
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2.1 FUNCTIONS OF A COMPUTER 6
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Function of Control Unit For each operation a unique code is provided e.g. ADD, MOVE A hardware segment accepts the code and issues the control signals We have a computer! 7
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Computer Components: Top Level View 8
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Components The Control Unit and the Arithmetic and Logic Unit constitute the Central Processing Unit Data and instructions need to get into the system and results out Input/outpu t Temporary storage of code and results is needed Main memory 9
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