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Introduction Part 1 - Project Mangement Power
Chapter 1 - Linking Projects to Strategy and Perf ormance Results
Chapter 2 - What Does It Mean to Be a Project Manager?
Chapter 3 - The Rules of the Project Game
Chapter 4 - The Nine Knowledge Areas of Project Management
Chapter 5 - Starting Off on the RightFoot Part 2 - The Project Definition Phase
Chapter 6 - Identifying Stakeholders and Defining Their Roles
Chapter 7 - Scoping Out Project Success
Chapter 8 - Managing Risks and Constraints Part 3 - The Project Planning Phase
Chapter 9 - The Breakdown of Tasks: What Really Needs to Be Done?
Chapter 10 - The Network Diagram: A Map for Your Project
Chapter 11 - Project Start to Finish: Establishing the Time to Get Things
Chapter 12 - Determining the Critical Pathand Its Impact on the Schedule
Chapter 13 - Budgeting and Cost Control Options for Your Project
Chapter 14 - Building a Winning Project Team Chapter 15 - Getting What You Need: Supplies, Equipment, and Other Things
Chapter 16 - Putting It All Together: Getting the Plan Approved Part 4 - The Execution Phase
Chapter 17 - Getting Started on the Right Track
Chapter 18 - Leadership:Taking the Bull bythe Horns
Chapter 19 - What an Organization!
Chapter 20 - Operating Guidelines: Setting Up to Get Things Done
Chapter 21 - Making Your Communications Count Part 5 - The Controlling Processes
Chapter 22 - Monitoring and Controlling Schedules and Expenses
Chapter 23 - Preparing Operationsfor the Project Deliverables
Chapter 24 - Changes, Changes, and More Changes
Chapter 25 - Quality Management: Making It the Best It Can Be
Chapter 26 - Common Project Problems: Get Them Before They Get You Part 6 - The Close-Out Phase
Chapter 27 - Will the Last One Out Please Turn Off the Lights?
Chapter 28 - The Final Evaluation: The Short and Long of It Part 7 - The Organization and Tools to Make Project
Chapter 29 - The Project-Enabled Organization
Chapter 30 - Softwarefor All Projects Great and Small Web Resourcesfor Project Managers Index OceanofPDF.com OceanofPDF.com ALPHA BOOKS
Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario M4P 2Y3, Canada (a
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Africa Penguin Books Ltd., Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Copyright © 2007by G. Michael Campbelland Sunny Baker
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Many project managers guess as a way to estimate the level of effort for a
project. However, there is a better way to manage projects, and you don’t
need to be a genius or even have an MBA to understand how. It doesn’t take a
special certification to manage a project, but it does take special skills to bring
projects in on time and within budget. Yes, some planning and charting is
involved in moving projects from start to finish, but this book takes a
practical approach to the process and puts you in control. The following pages
map the road to successful project management.
The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Project Management, Fourth Edition, explains
in easy-to-understand language how the power of time-proven project
management methods can help your mission-critical projects come in on time,
on budget, and on target. You’ll learn how to point project teams, in spite of
politics and personalities, in the same direction; and how to manage changes,
no matter how frequent, to keep projects on track. You’ll learn that it’s skill,
not luck or fancy degrees, that makes the difference in making your project a
success. How to Use This Book
The book has seven parts, which we recommend you read from beginning to
end. The parts work together to provide you with the steps and tools behind
successful project management and offer practical advice you can adapt to the
needs of today’s fast-moving, ever-changing organizations.
Part 1, “Project Management Power,” explains how to balance all the
different needs all project managers must satisfy. We’ll introduce you to steps
you can use to bring any project to a successful conclusion on time and within
budget and the three secrets to success behind any project: the project
manager, the team, and the plan.
Part 2, “The Project Definition Phase,” presents techniques to start a
project off on the right foot with a clear scope and a motivated project team.
This part is especially important because the way a project starts off usually
defines the way it will end up.
Part 3, “The Project Planning Phase,” explains the basic planning
processes central to successful project management. You’ll observe how to
define, schedule, and budget tasks using powerful charting and analysis tools
that can help you scope out projects of all shapes and sizes. This is the most
technical part of the book, so you might want to read it twice. Mastering the
information in this part is important because no project is ever better than the
plan used to manage the effort.
Part 4, “The Execution Phase,” presents proven techniques to transform the
plan into action focused toward meeting the project requirements. This is key
to successful project management. The end result of a project is always
related to the way the plan is translated into actual work in the real world.
Part 5, “The Controlling Processes,” talks about ways to monitor, track, and
adjust each project so that you can keep everything on schedule, within
budget, and with the right quality. You’ll also find easy-to-follow guidelines
for dealing with the most common project problems and for minimizing the
impact of the changes and conflicts that are part of almost every project.
Part 6, “The Close-Out Phase,” shows you how to finish your project and
reap the rewards of a job well done. This is often the most ignored part of
project management, but you’ll see why it is so important.
Part 7, “The Organization and Tools to Make Project Management
Prosper,” introduces some software packages that can help you find out how
to put the discipline of project management to work throughout your organization. Extras
To add to the material in the main text, a series of sidebars throughout the
book highlight specific items that can help you understand and implement the
material in each chapter: Time Is Money
Use the suggestions in these boxes to keep your schedule up-todate and your budget under control. Hopefully the advice will
spare you the embarrassment of running out of money before the
project is completed. You’ll also pick up on a variety of tips used
by veteran project managers to run projects of all sizes and kinds. def•i•ni•tion
These boxes define the most important concepts in project
management. Use these words in meetings to impress your boss
and your co-workers because it will demonstrate that you know
what you are talking about. Along the Critical Path Stories or information related to project management appear in
these boxes as examples from experienced project managers. Words from the Wise
These quotes and tips include observations from our experience
and other experts that may help inspire you to greater achievements
or simply help keep you motivated to do your best, even when the
project seems impossible. Risk Management
Sometimes things just go wrong, no matter how well you plan your
project. Luckily, there are usually warnings before things get too
bad if you know how to recognize them. In these boxes, you’ll
learn how to read the danger signs before you get swamped with
problems. Acknowledgments All of the people at Alpha Books—especially Michele Wells and Lynn
Northrup for their professionalism, skill, and good ideas—deserve our thanks.
We’ve appreciated the opportunity to work with them.
Just as important, we want to thank you, the reader, for purchasing this book.
We understand how important your projects are to your personal and
professional success, and we feel a deep sense of gratitude that you believe
we can teach you something about becoming a better project manager.
In addition, Mike Campbell would like to thank Stephen Schwarz and Dave
Feineman at BP, and Greg Ranft and Cliff Halverson at TXDOT for providing
great examples of project managers in action.
And any acknowledgement would be incomplete without recognizing
Michael’s wife, Molly, and her undying patience as he worked to complete
this book. Her support, and the love of his children, is the rock upon which
everything else is built. Trademarks
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be or are suspected of
being trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Alpha
Books and Penguin Group (USA) Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this
information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the
validity of any trademark or service mark. OceanofPDF.com Part 1
Project Mangement Power
Each year, organizations launch mission-critical projects involving millions of
dollars in capital investment plus significant requirements for project-savvy
human capital. The processes and methods of project management provide the
structure, focus, flexibility, and control to help guide these significant
investments to outstanding results, on time and within budget.
In this part, you’ll be introduced to the processes and life-cycle phases of the
project management discipline and the successful techniques of experienced
project managers. You’ll also learn the nine key knowledge areas of project
management, the first step in consistently bringing your projects in on time
and within budget. If you can do this, you’ll be a rising star within your
organization. That’s the power of project management. OceanofPDF.com Chapter 1
Linking Projects to Strategy and Perf ormance
In This Chapter
• Ways projects meet business needs
• A different approach to managing change
• Balancing time, resources, results, and perceptions
• What makes a great project manager
• Defining project success
• All projects great and small
The twenty-first century is here along with tighter budgets, less time to get
things done, and fewer resources. Sure, building warp drives that allow fasterthan-light travel are still Star Trek fantasies, but rapid change, expanding
technologies, and global marketing are real today.
To compete, you need to do more with less. Generally, you undertake projects
because they are a part of the plan to take your organization to a new level of
performance. However, to captain your business in the future, you’ll need to
build things faster, cheaper, and better. And you’ll need to get things done
right the first time.
Projects are becoming the way of the working world. Computers and
automation have eliminated many types of repetitive work, freeing people to
focus on building new products and services and improved organizations.
And where things need to be created, collected ideas are organized as
projects. Projects Meet a Business Need
Projects are usually begun to address one or more demands from inside or
outside the company. The drivers might be: def•i•ni•tion
A project is defined by the Project Management Institute as a
temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service,
or result. This means that a project produces something that has
never existed before; has a deadline or target date for when the
project must be done; and has a budget that limits the amount of
people, supplies, and money that can be used to complete the
• A market demand to expand production of products
• An organizational need to train people with new skills
• A specific request from a key customer
• A legal requirement from the government or regulatory body
Projects may take many different forms. For example, they may be projects
• Technology implementations, such as automation equipment
• Information technology or systems that will change computers
• Business development initiatives
• Human resource performance, such as training projects
• Strategy initiatives, such as introducing a whole new product line
Any and all of these projects usually start with a decision about what the
customers will require from the company in the future and focus on meeting
or exceeding these customer requirements or needs. These requirements are
then put into a strategic plan that will be carried out over a period of
anywhere from a few months to as many as five years. In addition, to execute
these requirements, various projects are created. These projects may have a
variety of outcomes in the forecast, but one constant is the same—the need to
improve performance in the future.
The project manager—the person who takes overall responsibility for
coordinating a project regardless of size and for making sure the desired end
result comes in on time and within budget—must understand this link. The
project manager must also make sure that each member of the project team
understands the link to the future of the organization and the performance
results the business is trying to achieve. Why, you may ask? The answer is
relatively simple as a concept, but much harder to execute. As the project proceeds, the project manager and the project team will be making numerous
decisions as they work to overcome a wide variety of technical and business
problems that were unforeseen at the start of the project. If these people do
not have an understanding of the strategy and how their project helps fulfill
the desired performance results, the team could make decisions that would not
allow the project deliverables to maximize the business value intended at the
beginning of the project. Viewing Change from a Different Perspective
When project managers think of change management, they probably relate it
to something an individual goes through during the course of a change. Such
theories are very popular, and you may even think of change in this way.
Many theories equate change with the death of something familiar and
suggest that organizations and people in them will experience a similar
process when going through a significant change. This meshes well with
theories that organizations are “living organisms” that take on a life of their
own. The major problem for project managers in these theories is “how do I
and my projects fit in?” Good question! I would like to propose a different
In today’s fast-paced world, project managers need to be good at handling
change. The best way to control coming changes is to use a disciplined
approach—plan the project and then execute against that plan. def•i•ni•tion
When a project causes organizational changes, a project manager
should view those changes as an engineering problem that requires
the alteration of concrete parts of the organization. Change
management is getting the organization prepared for those
alterations effectively and efficiently.
The basic problem with the project approach most companies use is that less
than 30 percent of the projects companies employ to change their businesses
are successful. Less than 30 percent! That is clearly unacceptable. Those projects include mergers and acquisitions, major technology initiatives, or
reengineering, to name a few. According to research by the Gartner Group,
over 30 percent of IT projects are cancelled. Over 50 percent of projects will
experience cost overruns. And only about 16 percent will be completed within
the desired time frame and budget and achieve the desired results. Amazing!
The dual perspective is needed for simultaneously running the business today
and changing the business to meet future needs. Adapted from Change Is the Rule by W.E. “Dutch” Holland, Ph.D. (Dearborn
Press, 2000) The good news for you is that if you master the techniques in this book, your
company will see you as a rising star. Why? Because you will be successful in
completing a project, and the contrast of the completed project with so many
other failed projects will be striking.
That’s why many people see the advantage to becoming a project manager.
The Project Management Institute (PMI), an international organization
dedicated to the advancement of project management, has nearly 100,000
members at the time we are writing this book and will probably exceed that
number by the time you read it. This institute has established standards and
certificates to raise the knowledge and professionalism of project managers
worldwide. A Balance Among Time, Resources, Results, and
One of the hardest tasks any project manager will face is balancing a project’s
time, cost, and quality. By looking at the three elements in the accompanying pyramid, you can clearly see that if the time begins to slip (meaning you may
miss your deadline), this impacts the other two elements. For example, you
can get the project back on track by getting more people involved (and
increasing your costs), by reducing the quality that was originally designed
into the project, or by asking for more time!
A good project manager will make sure that he or she understands which of
these three elements is paramount. In other words, what is most important—
the deadline, the budget, or the quality? Once you establish this, you can work
to keep the other elements in balance as the project progresses. This pyramid demonstrates the balance between time, resources, results, and
customer satisfaction that is required to bring a project to a successful
conclusion. If you change one of the elements in the pyramid, you
automatically change the scope of the project.
This brings us to the factors essential to the success of all projects:
• Agreement among the project team and the stakeholders (which
include internal ...
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