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Study of the impact of heterogeneity on the modeling of fluid-flow, based on a turbidite reservoir analogue Ainsa-1 quarry outcrop, Spain Master of Sciences thesis Submitted by: Erica Garrido Magaz In collaboration with: Rueil-Malmaison, June 2012
2 Abstract Geological heterogeneity includes variations in porosity, lithology, mechanical properties, structure, etc. (Eaton, 2006) and in the case of sedimentary bodies, facies distribution acts as a constraint of them. It is proven that heterogeneity plays an important role on the control of reservoir production with regard to the fluid flow patterns. The objective of this master's thesis was to study the possible impact of reservoir heterogeneities on the flow paths applying an analogue outcrop of deep marine depositional environment, (Ainsa-1 quarry outcrop, northeast Spain). For that purpose it was created (1) a structural model with data loading, cell network and surface boundaries modeling, followed by a (2) facies distribution. The resulting reservoir model was checked by (3) numerical simulations of fluid flows, applying a petrophysical property model (permeability and porosity) using underdevelopment software called OpenFlow Suite 2012. For testing the influence of large scale heterogeneities we run two-phases fluid flow simulations using a quarter five-spots injection production, which were defined for being affected mainly by permeability heterogeneities without confounding effects. Thanks to this, we provide an intuitive visualization of flow patterns, which are likely similar to the flow paths in oil-recovery processes.
Contents 3 Contents Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... 2 Contents ...................................................................................................................................... 3 List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. 5 List of Tables ............................................................................................................................ 14 Chapter 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 16 1.1 Aims and Workflow ................................................................................................. 17 Chapter 2 Geology ................................................................................................................ 19 2.1 Geographic setting .................................................................................................... 19 2.2 Geological setting ..................................................................................................... 20 2.3 Stratigraphic framework ........................................................................................... 21 2.3.1 Facies and architecture of the Quarry Outcrop ..................................................... 22 Chapter 3 Facies modeling .................................................................................................... 25 3.1 Previous work ........................................................................................................... 25 3.2 Stochastic facies modeling ....................................................................................... 30 3.2.1 Geostatistical approach. Stochastic Algorithms ................................................... 40 3.2.2 Geostatistical approach. Analysis of the simulation results ................................. 47 Chapter 4 Fluid flow simulation ........................................................................................... 79 4.1 Petrophysical parameters .......................................................................................... 79 4.2 Fluid flow simulation workflow ............................................................................... 83 4.3 Fluid flow simulation results .................................................................................... 88 4.3.1 First simulation ..................................................................................................... 88 4.3.2 Second simulation ................................................................................................ 96 4.3.3 Third simulation ................................................................................................. 102 Chapter 5 Discussion ........................................................................................................... 109 5.1 Facies modeling ...................................................................................................... 109 5.2 Fluid flow simulation ............................................................................................. 112 Chapter 6 Summary and conclusions .................................................................................. 115
Contents 4 Appendix 1- Selected petrophysical properties for the different facies of the Ainsa-1 quarry outcrop .................................................................................................................................... 117 Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ 119 References .............................................................................................................................. 121
List of Figures 5 List of Figures Figure 1.1 Flowchart showing the steps undertaken in this study. See text for detailed description. ....................................................................................................................... 18 Figure 2.1 General geologic map of the Pyrenees. The Ainsa basin is at present thrust and folded in a zone of oblique ramps that separates two of the major southward displaced thrust sheets in the southern Pyrenees (Arbués et al., 2007). (b) Location of the Quarry outcrop and surrounding areas (Google maps) ................................................................. 19 Figure 2.2 Positions of the lower to middle Eocene depositional systems in the south-central Pyrenean foreland basin. Arrows indicate provenance and dispersal (Arbués et al., 2007).

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