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Unformatted text preview: Psychopathology Definition: Study of the sickness of the mind or behavior Misnomer: abnormal behavior is a statistical concept and a mind cannot get sick Behavior disorders are real and have biological underpinnings. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual An agreement as to what constitutes a diagnosis Anxiety disorders Schizophrenia Mood disorders Anxiety Disorders Anxiety: a diffuse emotional state related to fear, less intense but longer duration Etiology: Behavioral: conflict, stress, guilt, threat Biological: ACTH, glucocorticoids, lactate Good reason to believe its genetic Types of anxiety based disorders General anxiety disorder: Symptoms: heart palpitation, tremors, sweating, shakes, rubbery leg Cause: conflict, threat, guilt, stress Prognosis: good Anxiety
y y y Symptoms: organ disfunction, morbid concern over health Cause: ANXIETY, Cause: parent model, early illness Prognosis: bad Anxiety Conversion Disorder
y y y Symptoms: hysteric disfunction Cause ANXIETY, Cause: conflict, guilt Prognosis: fair Anxiety
y y y Symptoms: intense fear of objects, places, events Cause: ANXIETY, Cause: traumatic episode Prognosis: good Anxiety Obsessive
y -Compulsive Disorder y y Symptoms: recurrent ideas, irresistible impulses Cause: ANXIETY, Cause: frustration, guilt, possibly genetics based (Prozac) Prognosis: good Psychosis: loss of contact with reality Schizophrenia What is mental illness? Myth (Thomas Szasz) Brain pathology Psychosis : organic Vs functional (misnomer) Schizophrenia
Schizo-phrenia Split-brain The split: associations, affect, reality (autism), values (ambivalence) Psychosis: loss of contact with reality Schizophrenia: simple, catatonic (waxy flexibility), paranoid Process vs reactive Positive vs negative symptoms Positive: Hallucinations Delusions Disorganized, agitated speech Schizophrenia Negative: Reduced Autism Waxy affect flexibility Theories of schizophrenia 1. Psycho-social-developmental explanations
lack of love lack of consistency parental model 2. Biochemical-genetic explanations Positive symptoms: The Dopamine Hypothesis Snyder: chlorpromazine, DA blocking relates to efficacy Amphetamine effects Harvard study Negative Symptoms: Brain damage Reduced frontal function Affective disorders
1. 2. 3. Mania Depression What are the symptoms? Affective Disorders No criteria of affective disorders. It is a label. Two dimensions: severity, duration MANIA: 3 symptoms for at least 1 week (restlessness, pressured speech, flight of ideas, conceit, no need to sleep, inattention) DEPRESSION: 4 symptoms at least for 2 weeks (dysphoria, hopelessness, irritability, appetite + or -weight, sleep, energy, lack of concentration suicide, etc.) Depression unipolar vs bipolar endogenous vs reactive What causes it? Hippocrates: black bile: melancholia Genetics: 72% vs 14% concordance rate Biologically based Theories of depression Meta-psychological Behavioral Amine hypothesis Bio-behavioral interaction: learned helplessness, inter personal relationship, stress Types of depression: NE, DA or SE dependent. ECT Theories of mania Organic Brain Disorder Epilepsy Virus Prions Tumor Chemicals Biogenic Amine Hypothesis Noradrenalin ...
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- Fall '06