104 second midterm exam review sheet 2007

104 second midterm exam review sheet 2007 - Political...

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Political Science 104 -- Fall 2007 Mid-Term 2 Review Sheet 1. Paradox of Participation R=PB-C+D People will vote if the benefit gained times the probability of your vote making a difference is greater than the cost of voting (time it takes to vote/laws enforced on the voters). D is the satisfaction one gains from voting (civic duty) but it’s not accurate because it’s then saying that everyone who votes gets great satisfaction from doing it. -When costs are low voter turnout will be high -When benefits are greater the turnout will be higher -When election are closer the turnout will be higher (each vote has greater impact) 2. Collective action problem -People will reap the rewards even if they don’t vote -People will only vote/join a group if they will have a decisive impact -Free Rider Problem : Problem that arises when people who share a group’s goals do not join or contribute to it because their personal contribution seems too small to make a difference and that can participate in the rewards whether they participate or not. 3. Solutions to collective action problem - Coercion: Sometimes there isn’t a choice; you have to join the group. If you don’t join you wont get the benefits - Solidarity Benefits: Benefits derived from directly participating with other in a group endeavor (social benefits; you get to know people) - Material or selective benefits: Benefits that promise some kind of financial benefit to participants (if you join you get all sorts of deals; AARP) - Closed shop: if you want to work somewhere you must be part of the union - Purposive Benefits: People think it’s important they really believe in it - Social movements: Black churches in the south during Civil Rights movement - Patrons and entrepreneurs: Wealthy people with certain view will subsidize interest groups i.e. Kholer Family 4. Disturbance Theory -There’s going to be some problem and groups will fix it -Depression, way…anything that changes -Georgia- out of water – Tennessee has their water – groups form to try and get some of Tennessee’s water. 5. Reasons for large number of groups in US -We are a big and diverse country (immigrants, race, and religious views) -Our system of government provides multiple access points: easier to influence the process, it’s easier to stop something than to get things to happen -Weak Parties: if parties were powerful they would control everything but they can’t control members in the US 6. Reason for increase in number of groups in US -Economic developments: More money and more businesses -Growth in Government: gov. is having more control over businesses (smoking ban) The more the government gets involved with business the more business will get involved with politics and interests groups will form. 7. Puzzle of why turnout has declined over time and possible solution -Turnout may have declined over time because of the addition of voters who consistently don’t vote or can’t vote like non-citizens or felons.
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