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AP World History Study Guide: By Zayedali Shaikh Paleolithic Era: Hominids: -Hominids were any human-like species and were bipedal -Included: Australopithecus, Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, Homo Neanderthalis, and Homo Sapiens -Paleolithic era lasted from 2,000,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago -Hominids originated in the Great Rift Valley of Africa several million years ago Australopithecines: -3.2 million years ago, showing early evidence of bipedalism, first to use their arms and legs, opening them up with the ability to do other activities such as reaching for fruit Homo Habilis: - 2 million years ago, showing early evidence of stone tools, giving rise to the paleolithic age. Stone tools allowed for the evolution of problem solving skills, cumulative progress helped achieve refined tools, each generation gets progressively better. Homo Erectus: -1.6 million years ago-200,000 years ago, standing upright and showing early evidence of fire use. Fire opened up opportunities to cook, increase their safety, as well as explore. Homo erectus was also the first to migrate out of Africa Homo Neanderthalis: -100,000-30,000 years ago, showing evidence of burial, with flowers and disturbed sediments Homo Sapiens: -Emerged 200,000 years ago, regarded as wise man, and was found in Africa -Need to leave Africa driven by competition with other humans, curiosity, and following animal herds -Early humans were in hunter-gatherer bands of 20/30 people, living a nomadic lifestyle. -Sexual division of labor was present, but not unequal -People were very nomadic, did not settle down, did not have large numbers, and had much more free time by doing less work to live a subsistence lifestyle
Paleolithic Art: -Venus Figurines: an umbrella term for a number of prehistoric statues of women sharing common attributes, and could possibly be a god -Cave Art- In the Lascaux caves of France, caves were seen to have drawings on them, showing signs of the earliest art in human history Neolithic Era: Neolithic Revolution: -Wide scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population -With the ice age ending, more fertile land was available -World population increases rapidly -Crops get selectively grown until extremely large forms are found, which are then also grown Effects of food production: -Poorer health -Shorter lifespan -Harder labor for the majority of people -Upper-class controlled the wealth -Middle-class merchants and artisans produced -Lower class urban dwellers and peasants helped farm Pastoralism- the practice of herding as the primary economic activity of a society Domestication- the process of adapting wild plants and animals for human use -Many animals were often domesticated: dogs, horses, oxen -Pastoral peoples sought the wealth of agricultural societies -Agriculturalists sought the lands of pastoralists and their secondary products Intensification- getting more for less, more food from less land meant more people Transitional Peoples-

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