PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 5.docx - PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 5 5-1 The Nature of Consciousness William James emphasized that consciousness is a continually changing


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PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER55-1 The Nature of ConsciousnessWilliam James emphasized that consciousness is a continually changing stream of mental activity. Consciousness varies along a continuum of levels of awareness. Our degree of intentional control over our cognitive processes varies. Controlled processes are those over which we have intentional control while automatic processes occur without our intention. Difference between Conscious and Unconscious thoughts is that the conscious is associated with ATTENTION while the unconscious is NOT.Brain waves vary in amplitude and frequency (cps) and are divided into four bands: BETA (13–24), ALPHA (8-12), THETA (4-1), and DELTA (<4). Variations in consciousness are relatedto variations in brain activity, as measured by the EEG.5-2 Biological Rhythms and SleepBiological rhythms are periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning, which indicate that most organisms have internal biological clocks. The cycle of sleep and wakefulness is influenced considerably by circadian rhythms, even when people are cut off from the cycle of light and darkness. Exposure to light resets biological clocks by affecting the activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the pineal gland,which secretes the hormone melatonin. Ignoring your biological clock by going to sleep at an unusual time may have a negative effect on your sleep. Being out of sync with circadian rhythms is one reason for jet lag and for the unpleasant nature of rotating shift work. Melatonin may have value in efforts to alleviate the effects of jet lag. Bright-light administration and circadian-friendly rotation schedules can sometimes reduce the negative effects of rotating shift work.5-3 The Sleep and Waking CycleResearch on sleep is typically done in laboratories, where volunteers come to spend the night. Participants are hooked up to an EEG, EOG, EMG, and instruments that monitor heart rate, respiration, pulse rate, and body temperature.EEG PatternsAwake: low voltage, high frequency Beta WavesDrowsy: Alpha waves and Hypnic Jerks.
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