Ch. 7 .docx - Chapter 7 Human Memory Chapter 1 Encoding Three key processes contribute to memory encoding(forming memory code storage(maintaining code

Ch. 7 .docx - Chapter 7 Human Memory Chapter 1 Encoding...

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Chapter 7: Human Memory Chapter 1: Encoding Three key processes contribute to memory: encoding (forming memory code), storage (maintaining code), and retrieval of memory stores. Attention, which facilitates encoding, is inherently selective and has been compared to a filter. The cocktail party phenomenon suggests that input is screened late in mental processing. Early- selection : input is filtered before meaning is processed. Late-selection : filtering occurs after the processing of meaning. According to levels-of-processing theory , the kinds of memory codes people create depend on which aspects of a stimulus are emphasized. Structural , phonemic , and semantic encoding emphasize the structure , sound , and meaning of words , respectively. Deeper processing results in better recall of information. Structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding represent progressively deeper levels of processing; shallow , intermediate , and deep processing , respectively. Semantic encoding is enhanced by elaboration which enriches encoding by linking a stimulus to other information such as examples of an idea. The creation of visual images to represent words can enrich encoding. Visual imagery may help by creating two memory codes rather than just one. Encoding that emphasizes personal self-reference may be especially useful in facilitating retention. It’s easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract objects. Dual-Coding theory: forming semantic and visual codes. Self-Referent encoding: Whether info is personally relevant. Enhances recall. Chapter 2: Storage Information-processing theories of memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin ) assert that people have three kinds of memory stores: a sensory memory , an STM , and an LTM . The sensory store preserves information in its original form, probably for only a fraction of a second and a portion of it is sent for longer storage. Ex: Afterimage STM has a limited capacity of about seven chunks of information. However, a more recent estimate puts the capacity at four items plus or minus one. STM can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds . STM is working memory (Limited memory storage system), and it appears to involve more than a simple rehearsal loop. Maintaining rehearsal is maintaining info in conscious, Elaborative rehearsal is to ensure info is retained for future uses. Chunking (IBM – CTV) is used to increase capacity in STM. According to Baddeley, working memory also includes a phonological loop (recitation of phone number temporarily), a visuospatial sketchpad (permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images), an executive control system (controls the deployment of attention and coordinates the actions of the other modules), and an episodic buffer (temporary, limited-capacity store and interface between STM and LTM).
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LTM is an unlimited capacity store that may hold information indefinitely. Penfield’s ESB research and the existence of flashbulb memories suggest that LTM storage may be permanent and forgetting LTM is due to retrieval failure . Flashbulb memories are vivid and detailed recollections of
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