Exam 1 EDF3110.docx - Developmental Science and Lifespan Perspective Developmental science the study of change and consistency through the lifespan-what

Exam 1 EDF3110.docx - Developmental Science and Lifespan...

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Developmental Science and Lifespan Perspective: Developmental science: the study of change and consistency through the lifespan -what makes us the same? -what makes us different? -What are some possible explanations? Research in Developmental Science -interdisciplinary: psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, neuroscience, etc - Scientific: increase empirical knowledge - applied: practical application of material Theory: an integrated set of statements that describe, explain, and predict behaviors Continuous development: constant change Discontinuous development: change happens in definitive stages Person Circumstances: hereditary and biological make-up Environmental circumstances: immediate setting (home, school) and circumstances (community resources, societal values, and historical time period) Nature v. Nurture Nature: biological, based on genetic inheritance, stability of characteristics Nurture: physical and social forces, influence biological and psychological development, plasticity Stability v. Plasticity Stability: persistence of individual differences; lifelong patterns established by early experiences Plasticity: development is open to lifelong change; change occurs based on influential experiences Lifespan Perspective: Development is: -lifelong - multidimensional and multidirectional -highly plastic -influenced by multiple interacting forces - age graded - history graded -nonnormative Periods of development Prenatal: conception to birth Infancy and toddlerhood: birth-2 years Early childhood: 2-6 years Middle childhood: 6-11 years
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Adolescence: 11-18 years Early adulthood: 18-40 Middle adulthood: 40-65 Late adulthood: 65-death Domains of development: Physical: body size, appearance, functioning of body systems, perceptual and motor capacities Cognitive: intellectual abilities Emotional/social: emotional communication, interpersonal skills, relationships, self- understanding, knowledge of others, moral reasoning and behavior Resilience: ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development - Factors that may help: o Personal characteristics o Warm parental relationship o Social support outside of family o Community resources and opportunities Theories in human growth and development: Early scientific theories: -Evolutionary theory (Darwin): principles of natural selection and survival of the fittest - Normative approach (Hall and Gesell): development as maturation process; age-related averages from large studies of children represent typical development - Mental testing movement (Binet and Simon): early developers of intelligence testing; sparked interest in individual differences in development. Psychoanalytic perspective: - Emphasis on individual’s unique life history - Conflicts between biological drives and social expectations - Interprets human development in terms of motives and drive o Drives are often unconscious and influence every aspect of a person’s life o Stages of development occur in sequence o First theory to consider parent/child relationship Freud’s 3 Parts of Personality: Superego: conscious
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