Bio-FinalExamReview - 12 G1 to S to G2 to M S is the...

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12 G 1 to S to G 2 to M S is the synthesis In anaphase the proteins that connect the sister chromatids non chromosome kineticore elongate the cell cleavage furrow is in animals cell plate in plants (from golgi) bacteria undergo binary fission dinoflag – envelope intact diatoms – spindles within cell S + G 1 = SS G 1 + S = MM G 0 phase is inactive to continuing Cyclin controls this cycle growth factor – protein released that gets other cells to divide too metastasis – spread of cancer cells 13 chiasmata – placing where crossing over occurred 14 pleiotropy – multiple effects of one gene epistasis – a gene at one place alters the expression of another gene polygenic inheritance – gradiant of traits norm of reaction – phenotypic range 15 linked genes – tend to be inherited together 1 map unit is 1% recombinants max of 50% nondisjunction – chromosomes don’t separate correctly Types of chromosome problems – duplication, inversion, translocation, deletion genomic imprinting – genes depend on mom or dad origin, caused by methylation 16 dead harmful DNA and alive harmless will kill Semiconservative model is correct Replication of bacterial DNA- starts at 1 point in both directions makes bubbles with replication forks that fuse uses DNA polymerase DNA pol III goes from 5 to 3 of new strand DNA ligase – joins okazaki DNA pol I – replaces RNA primer with DNA helicase – untwists double helix topoisomerase – relieve strain ahead of fork’ single strand binding protein – bind to the unpaired DNA primase – makes the RNA primer DNA moves, not the enzymes mismatch repair – cells use special enzymes to fix incorrect pairs nuclease – cuts out bad part
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telomeres – shitty genes at the end of DNA, telomerase catalyzes and restores 17 transcription – synthesis of RNA Pre-mRNA to mRNA Codons are writtin in the 5 to 3 direction RNA polymerase goes from 5 to 3 (new strand) promoter – starts here terminator –ends here, polyadenylation sequence – cuts off mrna transcription factors – mediate binding, help transcription TATA Box – before the real sequence pre to real mrna 5 cap – and a poly a tail – both facilitate export and help get rid of it RNA splicing – gets rid of introns, spliceosome, snRNP’s recognize splice sites Ribozymes – rna molecules functioning as enzymes translation – synthesis of a polypeptide at ribosomes anticodons, wobble (3 rd base pair) Ribosomes (with ribosomal RNA) P to A to E Small subunit finds start codon, gets large Ribosomes go from 5 to 3 on the mrna SRP – signal receptor protein bring ribosomes to ER siRNA an mrRNA – regulate which genes are expressed Mutations – silent , missense (still code but not for anything), nonsense (make a stop codon) 19 histones – DNA packing nucleosome – many histones in a beach
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