Test 1 - Chapter 1 Criminal Justice: Introduction and...

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Chapter 1 – Criminal Justice: Introduction and Overview Criminal justice – The sum total of society’s activities to defend itself against the actions it defines as criminal. These actions reflect a broad range of social, legal, economic, political, and moral interests. Probable cause – Sets of facts that would lead a reasonable person to believe that an accused person committed the offense in question; the minimum evidence required for an arrest, according to the Fourth Amendment. In practice this decision is frequently made by a law enforcement officer at the scene of a crime. Exclusionary rule – Rules prohibiting use of illegally obtained evidence in a court of law. Decided in Mapp v. Ohio. Reasonable suspicion – Suspicion (short of probable cause) that a person has been or may be engaged in the commission of a crime. When a police officer has reasonable suspicion that a person might be engaged in the commission of a crime, they are authorized to stop the person, ask questions, and frisk him/her to make sure they are not armed. Miranda warning – Warning that explains the rights of an arrestee, and that police recite at the time of arrest or prior to interrogation. The Miranda ruling laid down the standards of procedural fairness mandated by the 4 th , 5 th , and 6 th Amendments. Preliminary hearing – Preview of a trial held in court before a judge, in which the prosecution must produce sufficient evidence for the case to proceed to trial. *** add more Grand jury – Panel of 16 – 23 citizens who screen the prosecution’s evidence, in secret hearings, to decide whether someone should be formally charged with a crime. An indictment in the federal criminal process requires the concurrence of at least 12 grand jurors. Prima facie case – Case in which there is evidence that would warrant the conviction of the defendant unless otherwise contradicted; a case that meets evidentiary requirements for grand jury indictment. Plea bargaining – FIND INFORMATION Indictment – Accusation against a criminal defendant rendered by a grand jury on the basis of evidence constituting a prima facie case. Information – Accusation against a criminal defendant prepared by a prosecuting attorney. Sentencing guidelines – System for the judicial determination of a relatively firm sentence based on specific aggravating or mitigating circumstances. The guidelines assign specific values to the important sentencing criteria, principally, the seriousness of the offense, and possibly, the existence of a prior record and other factors. Probation – Alternative to imprisonment, allowing a person found guilty of an offense to stay in the community, under conditions and with supervision. A kind of community sentence. Alternative sanctions
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Test 1 - Chapter 1 Criminal Justice: Introduction and...

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