Title: Fluid Flow Friction and Fitting LossObjective: The experiment was conducted to determine the pressure or head loss in different diameter pipes, joints and valves.Introduction:Newton’s Third Law of Motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction to it. This law applies to fluid flow as well. In a fluid flow, there must be a certain amount of energy to keep the fluid moving, and a portion of this energy is lost due to the resistance that exists against the fluid flow, which usually is termed the head loss due to friction. The friction causes eddies and turbulences in the current and is caused bytwo main factors, namely the viscosity of the fluid in which the higher the viscosity of the fluid, the greater the friction acting against the fluid flow and the condition of the inside of the pipe, whereby the rougher the surface of the inner pipe, the greater the friction acting against the fluid flow. The head loss of the fluid flow is also affected by the changes in the direction of the flow, usually when the fluid flows in elbows, pipe bends, junctions and valves. The diameter of the pipe also has an effect on the head loss of the fluid flow whereby when the diameter of the pipe gets smaller, the flow area decreases. This causes the velocity of the fluid to increase and as the velocity increases, the head loss due to friction also increases. For a laminar fluid flow with a Reynold’s Number of less than 2000, the head loss is calculated with the equation: ∆hf=128μlQρgπ d4Where μ= fluid viscosity, l= pipe length, d= pipe diameter and Q= volume flowrateAnd for a turbulent flow with a Reynold’s Number exceeding 4000, the head loss is computed with the equation, taking into account the wall shear stress:∆hf=8∅lV22dWhere ∅= friction factor, V = fluid velocityApparatus: Piping Loss Test SetProcedure: 1.It is ensured that the water tank was ¾ full and all the valves of the set are shut.2.The main power of the test set is switched on and the water pump is checked to ensure it is running.3.The bypass valve and the flow regulating valve is adjusted to achieve the desired volumetric flow rate. 4.All valves are turned off except V1, then the pressure meter is connected to measure the head loss across the 8mm copper pipe.5.The V1is then turned off while the valve V2is turned on. The head loss is then measured across the contraction, 12mm PVC pipe and the enlargement portion.
6.The V2 valve is then turned off while the valve V3is turned on. The head loss is then measured acrossthe 15.5 mm pipe.7.The V3valve is turned off and the V4is turned on next. The head loss in the 9elbow, 9T-joint, in-0̊0̊line strainer, gate valve and globe valve is then measured.