Biology Review Guide T1

Biology Review Guide T1 - Biology 171 Review Guide Test 1...

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Biology 171 Review Guide Test # 1 Domains: There are three major groups of species. 1. Bacterial- a unicellular microorganism 2. Eukaryote- organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes . For example animals, plants, and fungi. 3. Archaea- are a group of prokaryotic (organisms that lack a nucleus) and single- celled microorganisms . Species have unique traits that increase their ability to survive and reproduce, known as adaptations. The Purpose if Science: - Allows us to learn about our universe - It seeks to explain the natural world and its explanations are tested using evidence from the natural world. - Scientific claims are based on testing explanations against observations of the natural world and rejecting the ones that fail the test. - Scientific claims are subject to peer review and replication. Theory: -Overarching explanations that make sense of some aspects of nature, are based on evidence, allow scientists to make valid predictions, and have been tested in many ways. Theories are supported, modified, or replaced as new evidence appears. The Cell Theory: proposed that all organisms are made of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells. Cells: a re defined as a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin flexible structure called the plasma membrane and that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution. Louis Pasteur wanted to determine whether microorganisms could arise spontaneously in a nutrient broth or whether they appear only when the broth is exposed to a source of preexisting cells. This experiment disproved spontaneous generation. The Theory of Evolution By Natural Selection: maintained that species have changed through time and that all species are related to one another through common ancestry. Hypothesis: a proposed explanation. Null Hypothesis: specifies what we should observe when the hypothesis being tested doesn’t hold. Direct Dispersal Hypothesis: states that natural selection should favor fruits that taste bad to animal species that act as seed predators. These same fruits should not deter
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species that ct as seed dispersers. Control Groups: check for factors, other then the ones being tested that might influence the experiments outcome. A Living Entity: - Is predominantly carbon and water based - Is composed of one or more cells - Contains heritable genetic information in the form of DNA - Acquires energy and material from its surroundings - Can respond to environmental stimuli - Can reproduce - Populations of this entity evolve over many generations through processes of selection, genetic drift (random changes in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool, usually of small populations), gene flow (is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another), and mutation (changes to the base pair sequence of the genetic material of an organism) Essential Requirements for Life: 1. Liquid Water - Medium for chemistry of life - Stable over a wide temperature range - Unique freezing properties help maintain stability -
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