Biology 171 Review Guide T3

Biology 171 Review Guide T3 - Biology 171 Review Guide Test...

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Biology 171 Review Guide Test # 3 Class Taxonomy: the describing an naming of species and higher taxonomic groups - Still in use today - Binomial nomenclature system of two part names - Hierarchical classification: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Classification: a way of organizing the diversity of living organisms Phylogenetic Systematics: a classification based on evolutionary relationships, which demonstrates the sequence of speciation events Modern Systematists: - Attempt to classify species - Infer evolutionary relationships among species RECONSTRUCTING EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS: Ideal Behind Phylogenetics: closely related species share many characteristics while distantly related species share few characteristics Phylogenetic Tree: a graphical representation of this history, which describes the sequence of speciation events Phylogeny: hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group Populations are represented by branches, and nodes show where ancestral groups split into descendant groups. Adjacent branches are sister taxa (a taxon is any named group of organisms), and a polytomy is a node where more than two descendant groups branch off. Tips are branch endpoints and represent living groups of a group’s end in extinction. History of Phylogenetic Biology: a phylogeny represents the branching patterns of species lineages via the process of speciation - A fusion of systematics with biology (1980-90’s) - Living organisms are the produscts os billions of years of evolution in this planet - Ex. ancient genes controlling key biochemical pathways (DNA replication and protein synthesis) are found in all organisms because they were inherited from a common ancestor o These are ancestral (plesiomorphic) characteristics o Subsequent evolutionary innovations are derived (apomorphic) characteristics and account for the differences among organisms Phylogenetic Systematics: - Serves to organize the diversity of living organisms - Seeks to infer evolutionary relationships
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- Phylogenies are reconstructed using data from: o Fossils o Morphology o DNA sequence data o Chromosomal arrangements o Development behavior Taxon: a character is any feature that a taxon possesses - Phylogenies should reflect evolutionary history: thus, they should reflect monophyletic groupings - Monophyletic groups= clade - A group that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants - Monophyletic groups will be defined by shared derived characters (synapomorphies) - A derived character is an evolutionary noelty unique to a group Monophyletic Groups: share homologous characters inherited from common ancestor - Ex. angiosperm evolved from a common ancestor that had a flower - Flower= shared derived trait (synapomorphy) - Ancestral (= pleislomorphic) traits o Ex. leaves, stems, and roots Characters may be Similar for Two Reasons: 1.Homology- similarity due to inheritance from a common ancestor 2.Analogy- similarity due to independent (convergent) evolution; similar selection
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