Carboxylic-Acids.docx - Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives Carboxylic acids are compounds which contain the \u2013COOH groups General formula CnH2n 1COOH

Carboxylic-Acids.docx - Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives...

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Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives Carboxylic acids are compounds which contain the –COOH groups. General formula: C n H 2n+1 COOH Physical Properties Boiling points Carboxylic acids have higher boiling point as compared to alcohols of similar M r even though both have intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This is because carboxylic acids can form two hydrogen bonds per molecule and exist as dimers. Solubility Carboxylic acids have two extremely polar ends, one O–H and one C=O bond, which can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Hence, they are able to form more extensive hydrogen bonding with water as compared to alcohol, making them more soluble than alcohols. Butanol with water Propanoic acid with water However, as the number of carbon atoms increases, solubility decreases as the non-polar hydrocarbon chain is unable to form strong interactions with water due to the dominance of van der Waa’s forces. Acidity of Carboxylic Acids RCOOH RCOO + H + Carboxylic acid is a weak acid and partially dissociates in water to give H + ions. The acid strength of RCOOH is determined by the stability of the carboxylate ion (RCOO ) . The more energetically stable the carboxylate ion, the less likely it is to accept a proton to form back ROH.
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  • Fall '14
  • Carboxylic acid

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