Pneumonia2.pdf - ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE System Disorder STUDENT NAME Pneumonia DISORDER\/DISEASE PROCESS REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER Alterations in

Pneumonia2.pdf - ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE System Disorder...

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Unformatted text preview: ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: System Disorder STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Pneumonia DISORDER/DISEASE PROCESS___________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ Alterations in Health (Diagnosis) -Occurs when defense mechanisms become incompetent or are overwhelmed by the virulence or quantity of infectious agents. -Organisms that cause Pneumonia reach the lung in three ways: Aspiration of normal flora from nasopharynx or oropharynx, inhalation of microbes present in the air, or hematogenous spread from primary infection elsewhere in body. Pathophysiology Related to Client Problem -Trigger of an inflammatory response in the lungs due to an invading organism -Inflammation, characterized by an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, activates neutrophils to engulf and kill the offending organism. Health Promotion and Disease Prevention -Delay in treatment can increase risk of morbidity and mortality ASSESSMENT SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Risk Factors Expected Findings -Abdominal or thoracic surgery -Age >65 yrs old -Air pollution -Altered consciousness: alcoholism, head injury, seizures, anesthesia, drug overdose, stroke -Bed rest and prolonged immobility -Chronic diseases: chronic lung and liver disease, DM, heart disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease Laboratory Tests -cough -fever -chills -dyspnea -tachypnea -pleuretic chest pain -sputum may appear green, yellow, or even rust colored (bloody) -in older pts. confusion or stupor may be the ONLY possible findings -hypothermia (rather than fever) may also be noted in older pts. -fine or coarse crackles may be auscultated over the effected region. Diagnostic Procedures -Gram stain of sputum -Sputum culture and sensitivity -CBC, WBC differential, and routine blood chemistries -Blood culture -H&P exam -Chest x-ray -Pulse oximetry or ABGs (if indicated) PATIENT-CENTERED CARE Nursing Care -Monitor physical assessment parameters, providing treatment, and monitoring pts response to treatment. -Pulse oximetry monitoring -Prompt collection of specimens (critical) -Prompt initiation of antibiotics (critical) -O2 therapy, hydration, nutritional support, breathing exercises, early ambulation, and therapeutic positioning Complications Medications -Appropriate antibiotic therapy Client Education -Teach pts to practice good health habits: frequent hand washing, proper nutrition, adequate rest, regular exercise, and coughing or sneezing into the elbow, rather than hands. -Advise pts to avoid cigarette smoke -Teach pts to avoid exposure to people with URIs -Increased fluid intake -Balance between activity and rest -O2 therapy (if indicated) -Planning: clear breath sounds, normal breathing patterns, no signs of hypoxia, normal chest x-ray, normal WBC count, and absence of complications related to pneumonia. ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES -Analgesics Complications develop more in older pts. -Atelectasis (collapsed, airless, alveoli) of one or more part of one lobe may occur -Pleurisy (inflammation of pleura) -Antipyretics Therapeutic Procedures -Delay in antibiotic treatment can increase risk of morbidity and mortality Interprofessional Care -Consult/collaborate with respiratory therapist -Pleural effusion (fluid in the pleural space) -Bacteremia (bacterial infection in the blood) -Pneumothorax can occur when air collects in the pleural space, causing lungs to collapse. ...
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