Max Stevens - Physics Project.docx - PHYSICS LAB PULLEYS ABSTRACT This lab is intended to investigate forces involved with pulleys the work performed by

Max Stevens - Physics Project.docx - PHYSICS LAB PULLEYS...

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PHYSICS LAB: PULLEYS ABSTRACT: This lab is intended to investigate forces involved with pulleys, the work performed by these forces, and how pulleys work to gain a mechanical advantage. INTRODUCTION : Work is defined as a function of force and displacement, or distance traveled. There are simple machines that can manipulate the relationship between force and displacement, either making a force greater and reducing its displacement or making a force smaller and increasing its displacement. A pulley is one simple machine that manipulates the relationship between force and displacement (as is shown in Figure 1 ). Figure 1 THEORY: First, two kinetic equations must be introduced. The first is: Δ X = V i t + 1 2 at 2 Eq. 1 This equation relates displacement ΔX , or distance traveled, to initial velocity v i , acceleration a , and the amount of time t the acceleration is experienced for. In this experiment it will be used to calculate acceleration, so this equation can be solved for acceleration: a = 2 ( Δ X v i t ) t 2 Eq. 2

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The second equation is: V f = V i + at Eq. 3 This equation relates final velocity V f to initial velocity V i , acceleration a , and the amount of time t the acceleration is experienced for. In this experiment, this equation is used to find final velocity given initial velocity, acceleration, and time. Next, an introduction to force is required. Force is an interaction, that, if not equally opposed will change the velocity of an object. By Newton’s second law, force is defined as: F = ma Eq. 4 Where F is force, m is mass, and a is acceleration. Force can be quantified using a Newton, an SI unit which is the force that would give a kilometer an acceleration of one meter per second. Newton’s first law states that for an object to have a constant velocity, the sum of all forces must be zero: Σ F = 0 Eq. 5 Work is the product of a force and the displacement, or distance traveled, it works across. It can be expressed in its most basic form with: W = F Δ y Eq. 6 Where W is work, F is force, and Δy is displacement. This can be quantified with the SI unit, the Joule, which is the amount of work done by one newton when the mass it is applied to moves one meter. Net work, or the total of all work acting on an object can be expressed as: ΣW = Σ F Δ y Eq. 7 Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Kinetic energy uses the Joule as it’s unit and can be expressed as: K = 1 2 mv 2 Eq. 8 Where K is kinetic energy, m is mass, and v is velocity. Change in kinetic energy can be expressed as: Δ K = K f K i -or- Δ K = 1 2 m ( v f 2 v i 2 ) Eq. 9 Where K f is final kinetic energy, K i is initial kinetic energy, v f is final velocity, and v i is initial velocity. Kinetic energy and work can be linked using the Work-Energy Theorem, which states that the net work done on a mass is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the mass. This can be expressed as: ΣW = Δ K -or- ΣW = 1 2 m ( v f 2 v i 2 ) Eq. 10 A compound pulley converts a larger force into a longer displacement, or the
• Fall '18
• Bruce Unger
• Force, lab, Pulley, Pulley Systems

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