outline - I Administrative Agencies and Administrative Law...

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I. Administrative Agencies and Administrative Law a. What is Administrative Law? i. Rules and Regulations are set forth by the administrative  agencies ii. Congress delegates their authority to the agencies iii. Courts determine the scope and authority of the agencies iv. Agencies are subject matter parts of the government, under  the Executive Branch v. How the branches interact: 1. The agencies make the rules and they have to follow  them 2. Judicial – Interpret the law 3. Legislative – Make the law 4. Executive – Enforce the law vi. Agencies can do all 3 functions b. Types of Agencies i. Primarily executive branch agencies 1. Made by legislature by enabling statutes, put in the  executive branch 2. Carry out purpose of cabinet positions ii. Independent Administrative Agencies 1. i.e. Amtrak and Post office 2. Not directly under the executive branch 3. Appointed Boards 4. Factors a. Fixed term appointments – the people who run  the agency – a board b. Don’t serve at the pleasure of the president 5. Advantages: a. Independence from political parties iii. Executive agency 1. i.e. Justice Department, Attorney General 2. Created by executive branch 3. Work under the president/serve at the pleasure of the  President 4. Termination Power is the Ultimate Authority 1
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iv. APA 1. Not: a. Congress b. Courts of the US c. Governments of territories or possessions of  US d. Government of D.C. v. Appointments Clause 1. 2 categories a. Officers – cabinet heads, judges b. Inferior officers i. Can be appointed by President Alone ii. Courts of Law or  1. Article 3 of Constitution 2. Not limited to Article 3 courts 3. Not enough to look like a court,  have to actually be a court 4. Can appoint inferior officers, but  not legislative officials iii. Heads of Departments 1. Must be given the name of  “Department” by Congress 2. Not all agencies are departments 2. Everyone else – no government authority – employee 3. The power to appoint people is a part of control c. Agency Independence i. Congress can’t retain authority of removal ii. Congress can’t put themselves in authority of removal iii. Congress  can  limit President’s authority for removal iv. Prosecutorial function is an executive function v. Independent agencies are fixed vi. Executive has the power of removal vii. Grabbing Authority 1. Congress grabbing authority that they don’t have  under Article 2 – courts will find unconstitutional 2
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2. But if congress takes if away from the president and  gives it tome someone else – it’s ok viii. Trying to determine separation of powers look at: 1. Is the act incidental to the authority being appointed 2. Does the act violate separation of powers giving 
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