0-Historf_of_Internet.ppt - History of Internet Bart Meulenbroeks Content Introduction Creation of ARPANET From ARPANET to Internet From Internet to the

0-Historf_of_Internet.ppt - History of Internet Bart...

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Unformatted text preview: History of Internet Bart Meulenbroeks Content Introduction Creation of ARPANET From ARPANET to Internet From Internet to the World Wide Web Development of the World Wide Web Questions Creation of ARPANET (1) 1957 – USSR launched Sputnik I United States were shocked Advanced Research Projects Agency Thechnological think-tank Space, ballistic missiles and nuclear test monitoring Communication between operational base and subcontracters Creation of ARPANET (2) 1962 – computer research program Leaded by John Licklider (MIT) Leonard Kleinrock published his first paper on packet-switching theory 1965 – first “wide area network” created Connection between Berkeley and MIT Creation of ARPANET (3) 1967 – plans for ARPANET were published 1969 – Interface Message Processor (IMP) MIT – NPL (UK) – RAND 4 computers (UCLA, SRI, UCSB and UTAH) 1971 – 23 host computers (15 nodes) From ARPANET to Internet (1) 1972 – ARPANET went ‘public’ ICCC First program for person-to-person communication (e-mail) 1973 75% of all ARPANET traffic is e-mail First international connection (University College of London) From ARPANET to Internet (2) 1974 – TCP/IP Each network should work on its own Within each network there would be a ‘gateway’ Packages would be routed through the fastest available route Large mainframe computers Several years of modification and redesign From ARPANET to Internet (3) 1974/1982 – Networks launched Telenet – first commercial version of ARPANET MFENet – researchers into Magnetic Fusion Energy HEPNet – researchers into High Energy Physics SPAN – space physicists Usenet – open system focusing on e-mail and newsgroups Bitnet – university scientists using IBM computers CSNet – Computer Scientists in universities, industry and government Eunet – European version of the Unix network EARN – European version of Bitnet From ARPANET to Internet (4) 1974/1982 Very chaotic Different competing techniques and protocols ARPANET is still the backbone 1982 – The internet is born using the TCP/IP standard From Internet to WWW (1) System expands Problems created by its own success Advances in computer capacities and speeds Introduction of glass-fibre cables More computers are linked (1984 – 1000 hosts) Large volume of traffic (success of e-mail) 1984 – Introduction DNS From Internet to WWW (2) Use of internet throughout the higher educational system British government – Joint Academic Network US National Science Foundation – NSFNet NSFNet Use of TCP/IP Federal Agencies share cost of infrastructures NSFNet shared infrastructure Support behind the ‘Internet Activities Board’ NSFNet provided the ‘backbone’ From Internet to WWW (3) NSFNet broke the capacity bottleneck encouraged a surge in Internet use 1984 – 1,000 hosts 1986 – 5,000 hosts 1987 – 28,000 hosts 1989 – 100,000 hosts 1990 – 300,000 hosts encouraged the development of private Internet providers Commercial users From Internet to WWW (4) 1990 – ARPANET was wound up 1990 – first search-engine (Archie) 1991 – NSF removed restrictions on private access “Information superhighway” project The World Wide Web (1) 1989 – WWW concept by Tim Berners-Lee 1990 – first browser/editor program The World Wide Web (2) National Center for SuperComputing Applications launched Mosaic X Commercial websites began their proliferation Followed by local shool/club/family sites The web exploded 1994 – 3,2 million hosts and 3,000 websites 1995 – 6,4 million hosts and 25,000 websites 1997 – 19,5 million hosts and 1,2 million websites January 2001 – 110 million hosts and 30 million websites The World Wide Web (3) The World Wide Web (4) Some facts 1994 – Hotmail starts web based email 1994 – World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded 1995 – JAVA source code was released 1996 – Mirabilis (Israel) starts ICQ 1998 – Google is founded The World Wide Web (5) The World Wide Web (6) Questions??? ...
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