1st Exam Essays - Decline of Athens vs Fall of Roman...

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Decline of Athens vs. Fall of Roman Republic - Athens o Began after death of Pericles in 429 BC, leadership began to deteriorate o Statesman motivated by personal ambition and desire for popularity o Oligarchs gained control in 411 BC (the Four Hundred) o Defeated in Peloponnesian War by Sparta in 404 BC, Thirty Tyrants took over (antidemocratic leader) o During Greek civil wars between cities, Macedonians desired to master the Greeks o Lack of unity prevented any defense against Macedonian invasion - Roman Republic o After 146 BC, administration proved unable to govern Mediterranean o Provincial rule worsened with tax collectors and soldiers exploiting provincials o Political adventurers attacked the authority of the Senate for personal power o Agricultural crisis, latifundia, Gracchan Revolution (133 BC) o Rival generals such as Marius and Sulla, triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey and Crassus o Private armies marched on own cities such as Caesar on Rome in 49
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