3rd Exam IDs - Hundred Years War 14th to 15th Centuries...

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Hundred Years War - 14 th to 15 th Centuries - Between England and France, in French countryside - Henry V led the English, Joan of Arc saved the French at Orléans, executed for heresy by English in 1431 - Strengthened power of Parliament and national unity in England, French wealth and unity increased after driving English out Black Death - 14 th Century began - Bubonic plague, a disease carried by fleas on black rats most likely originating in Mongolia - Spread to Europe beginning in Sicily, wiping out about 1/3 of European population (20 million) - Economic and social tensions already plaguing Europe were intensified, panic, hysteria, massacres of Jews, peasant uprisings (Jacquerie) Babylonian Captivity of the Church - 14 th Century - Period in which popes were all French and the papacy resided in Avignon, not Rome - Began with Clement V deciding to reside in Avignon - Damaged image of the papacy even more amongst lay people, set up papacy for Great Schism, another humiliation Petrarch - 14 th Century - One of the fathers of humanism along with Boccaccio - Followed example of Cicero, education should be based on knowing things and also learning how to communicate one’s knowledge for public good - Made Ciceronian values prominent to humanism, began the emphasis on education that led to Renaissance and Reformation Burckhardt - 19 th Century - Jacob Burckhardt was a historian who wrote The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Wrote the controversial thesis that the Renaissance was the breaking point from the Middle Ages - Renaissance was the birthplace of modernity, break from Dark Ages to period of Classical learning and development of human talent Renaissance Humanism - 14 th Century - Most characteristic intellectual movement of the Renaissance - Based on the study of ancient Greek and Roman literature
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- Emphasis on study instead of Christianity only like in Middle Ages - Turning point towards modernity, Renaissance art and literature derived of it, reevaluation of individual potential, emphasis on praise and merit Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man - 15 th Century - Leonardo da Vinci’s drawing of a nude man with notes describing the proportions and potential symmetry of the human body - One of the most famous drawings of all time - Da Vinci’s art and inventions were characteristic of the Renaissance period in which he lived, showed advancement from Dark Ages in education, science, and knowledge Renaissance Despotism - 15 th Century - Political experimentation began in northern Italian city-states, replaced Republicanism everywhere but Venice - Long term, one-man rule - Medici family is an example, supported by Machiavelli in The Prince -
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  • Fall '07
  • HUNZIKER
  • The Prince, renaissance, Protestant Reformation, 16th century

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