class notes unit 14 - Cold War(1945 1991 u25cf u25cf...

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Cold War (1945 - 1991)COld war (1945-1991) An Ideological struggleSoviet and eastern bloc nations “iron Curtain”- goal is to spread communismVs. US and western democracies- goal “containment of communism and collapse of communist world (George Kennan)MethodologiesEspionage (KGB vs CIA)Gather intelligence, CIA sold drugs, tried to topple Central and SOuth american govArms Race (nuclear escalation)Ideological competition for the minds and hearts of the Third World Peoples (communist gov command economy cs democratic gov and capitalist economy) “proxy wars”Economics, gov stability, medical care, - determines third, second, and first worldBipolarization of Europe (NATO vs Warsaw pact)Russia wants line in sand- doesn't want invasion - weak, need industrialization to build up country, have previously been invaded by west- buffer prevents russian invasionDivision of Berlin George Kennan - “X Article” Goals: restoration of the balance of powerMeans: encouragement of self confidence in nations threatened by sovietsAccomplishments: long term program of US economic assistance (marshall plan)GOal: Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside powerRussia mad about US not continuing Lend lease after WWIIMeans: exploitation of tensions in international communismAccomplishments: cooperation with communist regimesSupporting titoism in yugoslavia - communism outside of russia - work way into SUModification of Soviet concept of international relationsNegotiating settlement of outstanding differencesUsing “carrots and sticks” Korean War 1950 - 1953Kim Il Sung - NKSyngman Rhee -SKDomino theory - communism would spreadCOld WARAmerica - freedom and free tradeUs more powerful than ever Liberty , equality, democracyDid not consider that other countries did not have same values or necessarily agree with ours
US did not want another Great Depression Needed to maintain large source of goodsINcrease trade - remove trade barriersUS prosperity would benefit other countries even when those nations disagreedIf US did well, so would other countries US just wanted influence/economic prosperitySU security and autonomy Russia was invaded three times times from the westInsisted on military and political stability in the regiosus around them Stalin and khrushchev were powerful COld war leadersAuthoritarian - killed more of his ppl in WWII than the enemyStalin sent people to siberiaKhrushchev - missile crisis, space raceTruman and Eisenhower were US leadersNeither trusted SU and both believed in self determinationTruman compared the Russian go with the HItler government “police state governments” 2/25/19Defensive 1950 v 2019% of total budget 1950: 54% of total budget 2019: 16Sequestration- save fed budget from going into deficit - everyone has to cut budget - Congress

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