High Middle Ages - Economic Expansion By the end of the...

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Economic Expansion - By the end of the 13 th , advances in medieval agriculture reached the most superior technical level yet - Advances included a heavy plow, the water mill, windmill, three-field system replaced two-field - The colonizing and cultivation of new lands contributed to a strong decline in serfdom - A class of traders (many former serfs), as well as international fairs contributed to the rebirth of a massive period of commercial revolution - Towns began to emerge in quantities throughout Europe in 11 th Century with help from expanding trade and increased food supply - At night the packed streets became deserted, and fear of thieves led to merchants creating guilds to protect themselves - Women took an active role in the economic life, often working with their husbands in various crafts, and they had many of the same privileges - In virtually every city, the church was the largest property owner, responsible for hospitals and schools - Townspeople focused on the market instead of the church, castle or manor - Origin of the bourgeoisie, or the urban middle class, who would play a crucial role in modern European history England -
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