Rise of Roman Empire - Early Italy Etruscans exerted most...

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Early Italy - Etruscans exerted most powerful external influence on Romans (most in religion) - Rome emerged from a small town upon Etruscan conquest and became a center for communication and trade in all directions (Tiber R.) - Great power granted to Roman kings (imperium) and executives; king was commander of army, chief priest, and supreme judge - A Senate (chosen by king) and assembly were other 2 branches of gov’t - Clientage in which patron provided protection for client in exchange for services - Patricians were upper class and powerful while plebeians were poor Roman Republic - Constitution was unwritten accumulation of laws and customs - Consuls were like kings but with slightly less power - Praetors were judicial but also served as generals - Censors conducted a census and drew up citizen rolls before acquiring additional powers - At end of monarchy (509 B.C.), Senate became single deliberative body in Roman state - Plebeians undertook campaign for equality in political, legal and social equality (succeeded in 2 years) - Tribunes elected to protect plebes from magistrates (protected by death without trial for harming a tribune) - Rome burned by the Gauls in 389 B.C., but Romans ruled Italy south of Po River by 265 B.C. - After conquest, Romans did not destroy any Latin cities or their people, but did not treat them equally either Punic Wars - Roman conquest led to encounter with western Mediterranean naval power, Carthage (Iberian peninsula, N. Africa, Italian islands) - First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) began in Sicily over Messana
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