Rise of Sovereignty - Monarchs and Elites as State Builders...

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Monarchs and Elites as State Builders - First pivotal figures in statehood were kings - Monarchs used arms and taxes to exert their absolute power - Most European nations combined their religion with nationality - Commercial rivalry between states sparked competition Fall of Hapsburg Spain - Ruled 1479-1516, founded by Ferdinand and Isabella’s marriage - Purity of Catholic blood became mandatory for identity - In 1419, Inquisition began purifying religious beliefs by force - Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor after acquiring Spain - Philip II inherited throne, very zealous for spread of Catholicism - Declared holy war on England, Spanish Armada defeated 1588 - Hapsburgs declared Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), but failed - Since dominated by elites and church, democratic revolution took long Growth of French Power - Recognized sovereignty of the state - Capetian bureaucracy established in 10 th Century led to medieval kings - Kings never took absolute power, had assemblies to consult - Drove English out in Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) -
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