Political and Social Developments in Latin America and the Caribbean1945-80
DO NOW•What led to the Spanish-American War?•What was the Good Neighbor Policy?
Colonial Cuba•Spanish colony dominated by slave-produced sugar on plantations•Repetitive rebellions in late 19thcentury led to abolition of slavery in 1886•José Martbecame Cuban rebel leader and martyr•US corporations increasingly invested in Cuba•US military intervened in Spanish-American War(1898-1901)•Cuba gained independence but only candidates who followed pro-US policies won in rigged elections•Platt Amendment(1901) embedded in new constitution: made Cuba an American protectorate•US could legally militarily intervene to protect its interests•Cuba could only make treaties with the US
Post-Independence Cuba•US intervened in Cuba (1906, 1912, 1917) to protect American sugar, banking, telecommunications, tourism•Led to growing anti-American resentment by Cubans•Repressive government of Gerardo Machado(r. 1925-33) forced to resign•Economic instability caused by the Great Depression ensured widespread support or student protests•Sergeant’s Revolt(Sep. 1933): non-commissioned officers arrested army officers and supported student protestors in overthrow of provisional government•Weak and corrupt “puppet presidents” ruled (1934-40) •Fulgencio Batistaserved as Army Chief of Staff and wielded actual power
Batista Presidency 1940-44•Fulgencio Batista(r. 1940-44, 1952-59) elected president•From mixed race, impoverished family•Used ethnicity, military service, bribes to draw support from non-white working class, military, and journalists, clergy, union leaders•Appeased communists and workers with fairer labor laws•Supported capitalism and pro-US business policies•Cuba allied with the US in World War II•Cuban economy prospered from sugar exports during war•Constitutionally prohibited from serving second term•Emigrated to US with majority of Cuban national treasury•Weakened his successor, Dr. Ramón Grau San Martn(r. 1933-34, 1944-48)•US repealed Platt Amendment (1934), controlled 75% of sugar production by 1940s•Cattle barons, industrialists, plantation owners granted monopolies by the government
Cuban Political Turmoil•AuténticoParty: founded in 1933•Largest opposition party to Batista; nationalistic, corporatist•OrtodoxoParty: founded in 1947, splintered from Auténtico•Left-wing, nationalistic, anti-imperialist, anti-corruption•Advocated social reforms, economic and political independence•Grau (r. 1944-48) and Carlos Prío Socarrás(r. 1948-52) elected as Auténtico presidents•Rewarded supporters with top positions•Transformed supportive violent gangs into private army and secret police•Bribery and violence used against opposition•Abandoned socioeconomic reforms for support of wealthy businessmen, plantation owners, US corporations
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