Antibiotics_17.pptx - Antibiotics Pharmacology Donna Glynn PhD ANP Antibiotics(Antimicrobials Used to treat infectious diseases Up to 30 of all

Antibiotics_17.pptx - Antibiotics Pharmacology Donna Glynn...

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Antibiotics Pharmacology Donna Glynn, PhD, ANP
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Used to treat infectious diseases Up to 30% of all hospitalized patients receive antimicrobials Modern antimicrobials—1930s and 1940s Significantly reduced morbidity and mortality from infection Antibiotics (Antimicrobials)
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Toxic to microbes—harmless to host Disruption of bacterial cell wall Inhibition of an enzyme unique to bacteria Disruption of bacterial protein synthesis Selective Toxicity
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Classification by susceptible organism Classification by mechanism of action Drugs work on: Cell wall synthesis Cell membrane permeability Protein synthesis (lethal) Nonlethal inhibitors of protein synthesis Synthesis of nucleic acids Antimetabolites Viral enzyme inhibitors Classification of Antimicrobial Drugs
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Over time, organisms develop resistance May have been highly responsive and then became less susceptible to one or more drugs How antibiotic use promotes resistance Which antibiotics promote resistance The amount of antibiotic impacts resistance Nosocomial infections Suprainfection (superinfection) Acquired Resistance to Antimicrobial Drugs
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Vaccinate Get the catheters out Target the pathogen Access the experts Practice antimicrobial control Use local data Treat infection, not contamination Treat infection, not colonization Know when to say “No to vanco” Stop treatment when infection is cured or unlikely Isolate the pathogen Break the chain of contagion Delaying Emergence of Drug Resistance
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Identify organism Drug sensitivity of organism Host factors Drug may be ruled out owing to Allergy Inability to penetrate the site of infection Patient variables Selection of Antibiotics
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Culture and Sensitivity Report
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Antibiotic therapy for patients before causative organism is positively identified Drug selection based on Clinical evaluation Knowledge of microbes most likely to have caused infection Empiric Therapy
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Attempted treatment of untreatable infections Treatment of fever of unknown origin Improper dosage Treatment in the absence of adequate bacteriologic information Omission of surgical drainage Misuses of Antimicrobial Drugs
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Monitor clinical responses and laboratory results Frequency of monitoring should increase with severity of infection Clinical indicators of success Reduction of fever, resolution of signs/symptoms related to the affected organ Serum drug levels for toxicity Monitoring of Antimicrobial Therapy
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Active against a variety of bacteria Direct toxicity: low Principal adverse effect: allergic reaction Beta-lactam ring in their structure Beta-lactam family: also includes cephalosporins, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem Penicillins
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Mechanism of action Weaken the cell wall, causing bacteria to take up excessive water and rupture
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