post 5 - LATE UPPER PALEOLITHIC CAVE SITES WITH PAINTINGS...

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LATE UPPER PALEOLITHIC CAVE SITES WITH PAINTINGS INCLUDE: ALTAMIRA (SPAIN) LASCAUX (FRANCE) PECH MERLE (FRANCE) NAIUX (FRANCE) COSQUER (FRANCE--DISCOVERED IN 1991) CHAUVET (FRACE--DISCOVERED IN 1994) General Population Trends (Doubling Rates) Like most organisms, humans have the capacity to increase their numbers very rapidly when conditions are favorable. Even in preindustrial societies without modern health care they can double their populations in intervals as short as 25 years. The fastest doubling rate for a large population observed recently was that of the country of Kenya, which some years ago reached a rate of doubling every 17 years (fortunately not sustained for very long). 1) Before 10,000 years ago the overall doubling rate for the world's population as a whole was roughly 150,000- 200,000 years (on average---local rates might be much faster). 2) Between 10,000 years ago (when the first signs of domestication appear) and A.D. 1500, the doubling rate averaged about 700-800 years. 3) Between A.D. 1500 and 1985 the world's doubling rate averaged about120-160 years. 4) Between 1985 and 1999 the world’s population increased from 4 billion to approx 6 billion. This is equivalent to a doubling rate of about every 31years. HUMAN DEMOGRAPHY DEMOGRAPHY IS THE STUDY OF HUMAN POPULATIONS, AND PARTICULARLY OF THE PROCESSES BY WHICH POPULATIONS CHANGE. DISCOUNTING IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION, THE SIZE Of ANY REGIONAL POPULATION, AND ITS CAPACITY FORGROWTH OR DECLINE, DEPENDS ON THE BALANCE OF BIRTHS AND DEATHS. MANY DEMOGRAPHERS BELIEVE THAT THROUGH TIME MANY HUMAN POPULATIONS HAVE EXPERIENCED TWO OF THE FOLLOWING SETS OF CHANGES, AND SOME THE THIRD. COLLECTIVELY THESE CHANGES ARE CALLED THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION : STAGE 1 : HIGH FERTILITY IS BALANCED BY HIGH MORTALITY, RATES OF POPULATION GROWTH ARE USUALLY VERY SLOW. THIS PATTERN IS WIDESPREAD IN PREINDUSTRIAL TIMES.
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STAGE 2 : CONTINUED HIGH FERTILITY BUT LOWERED MORTALITY. CAPACITY FOR POPULATION GROWTH IS INCREASED. THIS PATTERN IS PARTICULARLY CHARACTERISTIC OF POPULATIONS FOR THE LAST 250 YEARS. STAGE 3 : LOW FERTILITY AND LOW MORTALITY. POPULATION STABLE OR EVEN DECLINING. ONLY A FEW MODERN POPULATIONS WITH GOOD HEALTH CARE AND HIGH STANDARDS OF LIVING HAVE REACHED THIS STAGE, MOST NOTABLY IN EUROPE. THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE IN THE 1920’S THE ARCHAEOLOGIST V. GORDON CHILDE COINED THE TERM ‘NEOLITHIC (OR AGRICULTULTURAL) REVOLUTION” . BY THIS CHILDE MEANT THE TRANSFORMATION FROM HUNTING-GATHERING TO FOOD PRODUCTION. HE DID NOT NECESSARILY ENVISION THIS TRANSFORMATION AS REVOLUTIONARY IN THE SENSE THAT IT OCCURRED RAPIDLY, BUT INSTEAD REALIZED THAT EFFECTIVE FOOD PRODUCTION, AS A NEW WAY OFF ACQUIRING ENERGY, REVOLUTIONIZED HUMAN SOCIETIES AND WAS A PRECONDITION FOR THOSE IMPRESSIVE SOCIETIES THAT WE CALL CIVILIZATIONS. DOMESTICATION DOMESTICATION IS THE PROCESS WHEREBY HUMANS MANIPULATE INITIALLY WILD FORMS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS SO THAT THEIR GENETICALLY- INHERITED MORPHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR BECOME MORE USEFUL AND PRODUCTIVE. THESE PLANTS AND ANIMALS BECOME MORE ABUNDANT AND WIDESPREAD. THIS PROCESS IS USUALLY VERY GRADUAL AND IN THE PAST WAS
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