TEST 1 PREP 50 MIN DURATION 8 ESSAY QUESTIONS, ONLY PICK FIVE ——————————————————————— Terms Mechanical solidarity ●the social integration of members of a society who have common values and beliefs. These common values and beliefs constitute a “collective conscience” that works internally in individual members to cause them to cooperate Example: ●Sociologist Émile Durkheim wrote The Division of Laborin 1893. In this work, Durkheim identifies two types of societal solidarity. Durkheim uses the term solidarityto refer to the things that keep a society together. Organic solidarityrefers to solidarity that results from the division of labor, which makes the members of the society highly dependent upon each other. In contrast, there is no division of labor in mechanical solidarity, nor are society's members highly dependent upon each other. All of the individuals in a society that is maintained due to mechanical solidarity share similar characteristics. They perform the same jobs, so one worker could easily take the place of another. Members of mechanical solidarity society have the same core beliefs, educational background and world views, and they live similar lives. It is because of their similarities that the society is able to stay together. Mechanical solidarity is prevalent in pre-industrial societies. ●modern society is like a body ●In the body the organs are hit degree of Labour specialization, also dependant on each other. Durkheim said this is how society works (social institutions is highly independent on each other) ●This can also breed some type of alienation ●We depend on other people to do our jobs Dynamic equilibrium Anomie ●Anomie, also spelled anomy, in societies or individuals, a condition of instability resulting from a breakdown of standards and values or from a lack of purpose or ideals. The term was introduced by the French sociologistÉmile Durkheim in his study of suicide. Example
●For example, if society does not provide enough jobs that pay a living wage so that people can work to survive, many will turn to criminal methods of earning a living. So for Merton, deviance, and crime are, in large part, a result of anomie, a state of social disorder. Collective conscience ●is a fundamental sociological concept that refers to the set of shared beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and knowledge that are common to a social group or society. In sociology and related social sciences, the idea of collective consciousness comes from the French theorist and sociologist Emile Durkheim. Collective consciousness is all about understanding what makes society work. Social solidarity how society stays together, how does society accomplishes this?