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1 NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA SCHOOL OF EDUCATION COURSE CODE: EGC 801 COURSE TITLE: PRINCIPLE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
2 MODULE 1: THE MEANING OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING Unit 1:What is Guidance and What is Counselling? Unit 2: Differences between Guidance and Counselling Unit 3: Historical Development of Guidance and Counselling in the Ancient Time Unit 4: Guidance and Counselling in American Education Unit 5: Guidance and Counselling in Nigeria UNIT 1: WHAT IS GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING? 1.0 INTRODUCTION The definition of the terms guidance and counselling has been a task to researchers and practitioners in the field. A survey of the plethora of literature available on the subject shows that each definition conveys the subjective biases and nuances of its author. While some writers use the terms in their generic sense, others derive their definitions from the root words ‘guide’ and counsel. This unit focuses specifically on the definition of Guidance and Counselling, explaining what we mean by the two terms. Let us look at what you should learn in this unit as specified in the unit objective below. 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you should be able to: Define Guidance. Define Counselling. Describe Guidance and Counselling.
3 3.0 MAIN CONTEXT 3.1 WHAT IS GUIDANCE The American Personnel and Guidance Association (1967) defines Guidance as an organized effort of a school to help the individual child to develop his maximum potential. Benard and Fulllmer (1977) on their part consider Guidance as the formal and informal effort to guide youths into the future while Ipaye (1983) sees guidance as a generic label, an umbrella term that covers all the means whereby an instruction identifies and responds to the needs of pupils or students no matter the nature of the need and no matter its sources thereby helping the child to develop to his/her maximum potential. Another leading researcher, Rao (1981) looks at Guidance as the assistance given to individual in making intelligent choices and adjustments. Okon (1984) tends to agree with Rao when he defined guidance as a total programme of a number of highly specialized activities implemented by all staff members to help individuals make wise, intelligent choices and decisions. Shertzer and Stone (1976) provide one of the most esoteric definitions of Guidance. They define guidance as the process of helping individuals to understand themselves and their world. According to them, Guidance as a process denotes not a single event but involves a series of actions or steps progressing towards a goal. By helping it is meant assisting or aiding individuals to prevent, remedy or ameliorate their difficulties and situational crisis. In the words of Ipaye (1983:1) ‘help’ does not mean and should not be taken to mean handling decisions, orders or a plan package down to the person who needs help, rather it means helping that person to sharpen his or her