Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Sulfur – Amino acids important in protein...

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Define the major elements found in biological systems Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur Define ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonding Ionic – electrons are not equally shared between atoms, soluble in polar solvents Covalent – formed by sharing electron pairs Hydrogen bonding – the interaction of electrostatically charged, covalently-bound hydrogen with electronegative atoms Define the functional groups found in simple biochemical compounds (amino acids, monosaccharides, etc.) and how they influence the properties of those compounds. Carbonyl groups (aldehydes and ketones) form H-bonds found in sugars Carboxyl – weak acid found in amino acids and fatty acids Amino – weak base found in amino acids and amino sugars Phosphate – Nucleotides and lipids important for ATP
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Unformatted text preview: Sulfur – Amino acids important in protein structure Explain and describe how simple, monomeric molecules influence the properties of larger, polymeric molecules Sugars Polysaccharides Pentoses –OH on carbon 2 backbone of RNA Deoxyribose – no –OH on carbon 2 backbone of DNA Fatty acids Fats/lipids/membranes Have hydrophilic ends and hydrophobic ends Saturated and Unsaturated Amino acids Proteins N-C-C is the backbone of Amino Acids R- side chain is variable Nucleotides Nucleic acids Nucleoside – sugar and base Nucleotide – sugar, base and phosphate Pyrimidine bases – single ring Purine bases – 2 rings (2 rhymes with U) The difference between DNA and RNA is the 2 carbon DNA and RNA polymers are linked via a 3 to 5 phosphodiester bond...
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