Exam 3 Review Session

Exam 3 Review Session - Control of Gene Expression Lactose...

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Control of Gene Expression - Lactose operon o In bacteria, but concepts applicable to humans o Set of genes that operate as 1 unit, process: 3 genes at end are Lactose Utilization Genes 3 sections in front: regulatory gene, promoter, operator DNA to RNA = transcription mRNA then goes through translation (become proteins) Job of these proteins is to digest lactose, break down for use Regulatory gene made into protein called repressor (Active Repressor) Repressor sits on operator, operator stops work, end production of LUGs Lactose builds up, fills pocket in repressor, becomes Inactive Repressor mRNA made, proteins made to eat lactose again Repressor gene is master regulator in this system - Inductive signals o 2 haploid cells (egg and sperm) become diploid o When cell splits, 1 cell becomes many, signals to other cells who they are (Cell 1 tells new divided cell to be cell 3, etc.) o Organizer in early human signals, using concentration gradient, which part of body is head, foot, brain, etc. using inductive signaling o Possible ?: Signals coming from cell on left side of embryo, where is it most likely to impact? Idea of 1 cell causing type of other cell is _______ signaling. o Homeotic or Master Gene turns other genes on or off, master regulator Genetic Engineering - Bacterial genetics o DNA for bacteria not in nucleus, structure much simpler and easy to study o
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