513.pdf - Language Teaching Methods(ENG513 VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN Language Teaching Methods(ENG513 VU Table of Contents Lesson No Lesson Title

513.pdf - Language Teaching Methods(ENG513 VIRTUAL...

This preview shows page 1 out of 360 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 360 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) VU Table of Contents Lesson No. Lesson Title Topics Pg. No. LANGUAGE: SOME THEORETICAL CONCEPTS Lesson No. 1 Defining Language Learning Some Theoretical Concepts: Language as a System Some Theoretical Concepts: Language as Discourse Some Theoretical Concepts: Language as an Ideology Language Teaching and Theoretical Concepts about Language 001 002 003 004 005 9 9 12 15 19 A BRIEF HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS Lesson No. 2 Significance of a ‘Language Teaching Methods’ Course Language Teaching Methods in Ancient Times Language Teaching Methods in Europe in Early Modern Times Language Teaching Methods in the 19th and Early to Mid-20th Century Language Teaching Methods from the Mid- to Late-20th Century DIFFERENCE TECHNIQUE Lesson No. 3 IN THEORY, APPROACH, What is a Theory? What is an Approach? What is a Method/ Methodology? Types of Methods Some other terms: System, Procedure, Technique 006 007 008 20 20 21 009 010 21 24 METHOD 011 012 013 014 015 AND 28 33 34 37 39 CONTEXT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LTM IN PAKISTAN- PART 1 Lesson No. 4 Status of English in Pakistan English Language and Education in Pakistan Teaching and Learning of English in Pakistan English Language Curriculum in Pakistan LTM and Constraints in Pakistan 016 017 018 019 020 41 41 42 43 44 CONTEXT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LTM IN PAKISTAN- PART 2 Lesson No. 5 Teaching Speaking and Listening in Pakistan Teaching Reading in Pakistan Teaching Writing in Pakistan ELT, Use of Methods and SL Proficiency in Pakistan ELT and Teacher Training in Pakistan 021 022 023 46 46 47 024 025 47 48 026 027 028 029 49 49 50 50 GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD Lesson No. 6 What is Grammar Translation Method? Strengths of Grammar Translation Method Weaknesses of Grammar Translation Method Grammar Translation Method Opportunities and Threats ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 1 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) Grammar Translation Method in Pakistan VU 030 52 031 032 033 034 035 53 54 54 55 55 Background of Audio-lingual Method Theoretical Principles behind Audio-lingual Method Contents in Audio-lingual Method Objectives, Syllabus and Classroom Procedures in Audio-lingual Method 036 037 038 57 59 64 039 65 Decline of Audio-lingual Method: A Critical Assessment 040 74 041 042 77 77 043 79 044 045 80 80 046 83 047 84 048 85 049 050 87 88 051 90 052 91 053 92 054 94 055 95 THE DIRECT METHOD Lesson No. 7 What is the Direct Method? Strengths and Weaknesses of the direct Method The Direct Method: Opportunities and Threats Direct method in Pakistani Context Direct method: Sample Activities AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Lesson No. 8 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD Lesson No. 9 Introduction to Alternative/Humanistic Approaches and Methods / and Background of Total Physical Response Method Approach & Theory behind Total Physical Response Method Objectives, Syllabus and Learning Activities in Total Physical Response Method Role of Learners, Teachers and Material in Total Physical Response Method Procedure in Total Physical Response Method THE SILENT WAY Lesson No. 10 Background of the Silent Way Method Approach & Theory of Language and Learning behind The Silent Way Method Objectives, Syllabus, and Learning Activities in The Silent Way Method Role of Learners, Teachers and Materials in the Silent Way Method Procedure in the Silent Way Method COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING Lesson No. 11 Background of Community Language Learning Method Approach and Theory of Language and Learning in Community Language Learning Method Objectives, Syllabus, and Learning Activities in Community Language Learning Method Roles of Learners, Teachers, and Materials in Community Language Learning Method Procedure in Community Language Learning Method ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 2 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) VU SUGGESTOPEDIA Lesson No. 12 Background of Suggestopedia Approach and Theory of Suggestopedia Language and Learning 056 98 057 in Objectives, Syllabus, and Learning Activities in Suggestopedia 058 98 100 Role of Learners, Teachers and Materials in Suggestopedia Procedure in Suggestopedia 059 060 101 102 061 105 062 106 063 106 064 065 107 108 066 110 067 111 068 112 069 070 114 115 071 118 072 073 074 075 119 120 121 123 076 124 077 124 078 126 079 080 127 129 WHOLE LANGUAGE METHOD Lesson No. 13 Background of Whole Language Method Approach and Theory of Language and of Learning in Whole Language Method Objectives, Syllabus, and Learning Activities in Whole Language Method Role of Learners, Teachers, and Materials in Whole Language Method Procedure in Whole Language Method MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE METHOD Lesson No. 14 Background of Multiple Intelligences Method Approach and Theory of Language and Language Learning behind Multiple Intelligences Method Objectives, Syllabus and Learning Activities in Multiple Intelligences Method Roles of Learners, Teachers, and Materials in Multiple Intelligences Method Procedure in Multiple Intelligences Method NEUROLINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING Lesson No. 15 Background, Approach and Theory behind Neurolinguistic Programming Objectives and Presuppositions that Guide the Application of Neurolinguistic Programming Role of Teacher and Learner in Neurolinguistic Programming Procedure of Neurolinguistic Programming Critical Comments on Neurolinguistic Programming THE LEXICAL APPROACH Lesson No. 16 Background of the Lexical Approach Approach and Theory of Language and Learning of the Lexical Approach Objectives, Syllabus and Learning Activities in the Lexical Approach Role of Learners, Teachers, and Materials in the Lexical Approach Procedure of the Lexical Approach ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 3 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) VU COMPETENCY BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING Lesson No. 17 Background of Competency-Based Language Teaching Approach and Theory of Language and Learning of CompetencyBased Language Teaching Objectives, Syllabus and Learning Activities in CompetencyBased Language Teaching Factors involved in the Implementation of Competency-Based Language Teaching Programs Procedure and Criticism on Competency-Based Language Teaching 081 131 082 132 083 133 084 135 085 136 COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING APPROACH Lesson No. 18 Introduction to Current Communicative Approaches / and Background of Communicative Language Teaching Approach Theory behind Communicative Language Teaching Approach Contents in Communicative Language Teaching Approach Classroom Procedures in Communicative Language Teaching Approach A Critical Assessment & Conclusion of Communicative Language Teaching Approach 086 087 088 139 141 145 089 146 090 149 091 092 152 153 093 094 095 157 159 161 096 164 097 165 098 167 099 100 170 172 101 173 102 174 103 175 104 179 THE NATURAL APPROACH Lesson No. 19 Background of the Natural Approach Approach and Theory of Language behind the Natural Approach Objectives, Syllabus and Learning & Teaching Activities in the Natural Approach Role of Leaners, Teachers and Materials in the Natural Approach Procedure in the Natural Approach COOPERATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING Lesson No. 20 Background of Cooperative Language Learning Approach and Theory of Language and Learning behind Cooperative Language Learning Objectives, Syllabus and Learning Activities in Cooperative Language Learning Role of Learners, Teachers and Materials in Cooperative Language Learning Procedure in Cooperative Language Learning CONTENT BASED INSTRUCTION Lesson No. 21 Background of Content-Based Instruction Role of Content in other Curriculum Designs and Content-Based Instruction Approach and Theory of Language & Learning behind ContentBased Instruction Objectives, Syllabus and Learning Activities in Content-Based Instruction ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 4 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) Role of Learners, Teachers and Materials in Content-Based Instruction VU 105 181 106 184 107 186 108 189 109 110 194 196 TASK BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING Lesson No. 22 Background of Task-Based Language Teaching Theory of language and Learning behind Task-Based Language Teaching Objectives, Syllabus and Learning Activities in Task-Based Language Teaching Role of Learners, Teachers and Materials in Task-Based Language Teaching Procedure in Task-Based Language Teaching THE POST METHODS ERA AND LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS Lesson No. 23 Background of the Post-methods Era/ Eclectic Approach Why criticism on Approaches and Methods Developed over Time? Beyond Approaches and Methods The Scope of Post Method Post Method Era and Looking Forward 111 200 112 113 114 115 202 204 206 207 LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS FOR BILINGUALS The Multilingual Mind: Second Language Acquisition A general Language Processing Model Lesson No. 24 116 117 210 210 118 A Dynamic Model of the Multilingual Mental Lexicon and its Implications for SLA 119 212 Language Teaching Methods in Pakistani Bilingual Context 217 Towards a Dynamic Model of the Multilingual Mental Lexicon 120 216 LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS IN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES (ESP) Lesson No. 25 Language Teaching Methods in English for Specific Purposes: Introduction Importance of Needs Analysis in ESP English for Vocational Purposes (EVP) Elements of ESP Materials Vocationally Oriented Language Learning (VOLL) Tasks 121 122 123 124 125 221 221 222 223 226 TEACHING VOCABULARY IN A LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Lesson No. 26 Lesson No. 27 Introduction to Vocabulary Teaching Vocabulary Size and Coverage: Key Facts and Figures How Much Vocabulary Do EFL Learners Know? Choosing Words to Be Learned in an English Language-Learning Programme Vocabulary Learning Activities: Learning Outside the Classroom 126 127 128 230 230 231 129 130 232 235 TEACHING PRONUNCIATION IN A LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Introduction: Pronunciation and the Changing Landscape of ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 131 239 5 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) English Teaching Listening and the Case of Pakistan New Approaches and Goals in Teaching Pronunciation The Basis for Pronunciation: Phonetics and Phonology Role of the Internet in Teaching and Learning Pronunciation VU 132 133 134 135 239 239 242 242 TEACHING SPEAKING IN A LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Lesson No. 28 Introduction: Teaching Speaking in a Language Classroom Second Language: Speaking Activities Processes in Speech Production and designing activities Classroom Speaking Tasks Enhancing Second Language Speaking Performance and LTM 136 137 138 139 140 245 245 249 251 252 TEACHING LISTENING IN A LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Lesson No. 29 The Importance of Developing L2 Listening Skills The Features of Spoken Language and classroom activities Factors Affecting L2 Comprehension Format of a Well-Designed Listening Lesson Suggested Approaches to Listening Practice 141 142 143 144 145 254 256 257 260 263 146 147 266 267 148 270 149 150 270 271 151 152 153 154 274 275 277 278 155 281 156 157 158 159 160 284 284 285 287 291 161 162 163 294 294 297 TEACHING READING IN A LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Lesson No. 30 Introduction to Teaching Reading in a Language Classroom Views on Reading and Viewing: Classroom Activities Factors Affecting Reading and Viewing Success in a language classroom Effective Instruction in Reading and Viewing: A Language Classroom Teaching Reading and Viewing Inside and Outside the Classroom TEACHING WRITING IN A LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Lesson No. 31 Introduction to Teaching Writing in a Language Classroom Writing Competence and LTM Writing Process and LTM in a classroom The Use of Technologies to Enhance the Teaching of Writing Pedagogical Principles of the Socio-Cognitive Approach to Academic Writing INTEGRATING LANGUAGE SKILLS Lesson No. 32 What does Integrating Language Skills Mean? A History of Skill Separation The Need for Integration: Why? Micro-strategies for Integrating Language Skills Exploratory Projects for Skill Integration LESSON PLANNING AND LANGUAGE TEACHING Lesson No. 33 What is a Lesson Plan? Lesson Planning in Language Teaching Functions and Significance of a lesson plan ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 6 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) Important Items to Include in a Lesson Plan Lesson Planning in Pakistan VU 164 165 297 300 166 167 301 301 168 307 169 308 170 311 171 312 172 173 174 175 312 314 315 315 176 177 178 179 180 318 319 319 323 326 DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Lesson No. 34 Significance of Designing Instructional Materials Materials: Traditional Practices and Principles Needs and Wants of Learners of English as a Lingua Franca, and Designing Materials Materials: Use of Spoken Interactions of Native and Non-native Speakers Materials: Use of Written Texts Produced by Native and Nonnative Speakers DIGITAL MEDIA IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Lesson No. 35 Use of Digital Media in Teaching EIL: Methods Digital Media and the EIL Classroom: Traditional Principles and Practices Global Literacy: EIL Classrooms Inside a Changing World Contribution of ICT to L2 Development Principles of Selecting and evaluating ICT Tools and Resources PROMOTING LEARNER AUTONOMY Lesson No. 36 What is Learner Autonomy? What Learner Autonomy is not? Learning Strategies for Learner Autonomy Degrees of Learner Autonomy Learner Autonomy and the Case of Pakistan SYLLABUS DESIGN FOR A LANGUAGE TEACHING COURSE Lesson No. 37 Definition of Syllabus Purpose of a Syllabus in Language Teaching Characteristics of Syllabus and Language Teaching Classroom Syllabus Classifications and LTM Using a Syllabus in a LTM Course 181 182 183 184 185 327 328 329 329 330 186 187 188 189 190 332 333 335 338 339 ASSESSMENT IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Lesson No. 38 Assessment in Language Teaching Assessment and Evaluation in Second Language Assessment types and Options for Language Teachers Importance of Assessment in English Language Teaching English Language Assessment in Pakistan TEACHER TRAINING AND LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS Lesson No. 39 Introduction to Teacher Training Why Teacher Training for Language Teachers? Teacher Training: Some Important Aspects Teacher Training Of Language Teachers: International Practices Teacher Training and Language Teaching in Pakistan ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 191 192 193 194 195 341 342 343 343 347 7 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) VU RESEARCH AND LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS Lesson No. 40 Introduction to Research in Language Teaching Epistemological Basis for Research in Language Teaching Current Research Practices in Language Teaching Research in Language Teaching in Pakistan Types of Research Instruments and their Purpose: Current Trends 196 197 198 199 200 349 351 353 354 354 RECAPITULATING AND EXPLORING FUTURE DIRECTIONS Lesson No. 41 Recapitulating the History of LTM Recapitulating Some Methods: - Part 1 Recapitulating Some Methods: - Part 2 Recapitulating Teaching of Vocabulary, Pronunciation and Skills Future Directions in LTM ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 201 202 203 204 205 358 358 359 359 359 8 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) VU Lesson-01 LANGUAGE: SOME THEORETICAL CONCEPTS Topic-001: Defining Language “A definition of language,” observed the British cultural critic, Raymond Williams, “is always, implicitly or explicitly, a definition of human beings in the world” (1977, p. 21). Significance of Language Language permeates every aspect of human experience, and creates as well as reflects images of that experience. It is almost impossible to imagine human life without it. And yet, we seldom think about it. We are oblivious of its ubiquitous presence in and around us, just as the fish is (or, is it?) unmindful of the water it is submerged in. Even those who systematically study language have not fully figured out what it is. A case in point: After brilliantly synthesizing both Western and non-Western visions of language developed through the ages, the leading French linguist and psychoanalyst, Julia Kristeva (1989, p. 329) ends her erudite book on language with the humbling phrase: “that still unknown object— language.” Topic-002: Some Theoretical Concepts: Language as a System Although there are endless debates on what constitutes language, for the limited purpose of understanding its relevance, concepts and precepts, we may look at it from three broad conceptual vantage points: language as a system, language as discourse, and language as ideology. Language as a System We all know that human language is a well-organized and well-crafted instrument. That is to say, all the basic components of a language work in tandem in a coherent and systematic manner. They are certainly not a random collection of disparate units. From one perspective, a study of language is basically a study of its systems and subsystems. By treating language as a system, we are merely acknowledging that each unit of language, from a single sound to a complex word to a large text—spoken or written—has a character of its own, and each is, in some principled way, delimited by and dependent upon its co-occurring units. As we learn from any introductory textbook in linguistics, the core of language as a system consists of the phonological system that deals with the patterns of sound, the semantic system that deals with the meaning of words, and the syntactic system that deals with the rules of grammar. For instance, at the phonological level, with regard to the pattern of English, stop consonants are distinguished from one another according to their place of articulation (bilabial, alveolar, velar) and their manner of articulation (voiceless, voiced) as shown: Bilabial Alveolar Velar Voiceless /p/ /t/ /k/ Voiced /b/ /d/ /g/ ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 9 Language Teaching Methods (ENG513) VU These minimal sounds, or phonemes as they are called, have contrastive values in the sense that replacing one with another will make a different word as in pit–bit, or ten–den, and so forth. Understanding the sound system of a language entails an understanding of which sounds can appear word-initially or word-finally, or which can follow which. It also entails an understanding of how certain sound sequences signify certain meanings. In the aforementioned example, the user of English knows that ten and den are two different words with two different meanings. We learn from semantics that every morpheme, which is a collection of phonemes arranged in a particular way, expresses a distinct meaning, and that there are free morphemes that can occur independently (as in den, dance) or bound morphemes like plural -s, or past tense, which are attached to a free morpheme (as in dens, danced). Different words are put together to form a sentence, again within the confines of a rule-governed grammatical system. The sentence, ‘The baby is sleeping peacefully’, is grammatical only because of the way the words have been strung together. A change in the sequence such as ‘Sleeping is the peacefully baby’ will make the sentence ungrammatical. Conversely, sentences that may have a grammatically well-formed sequence as in the well-known example, ‘Colorless green ideas sleep furiously’, may not make any sense at all. These examples show, in part, that “the nouns and verbs and adjectives are not just hitched end to end in one long chain, there is some overarching blueprint or plan for the sentence that puts each word in a specific slot”. (Pinker, 1994, p. 94) Language as a system enables the language user to combine phonemes to form words, words to form phrases, phrases to form sentences, and sentences to form spoken or written texts—each unit following its own rules as well as the rules for combination. Crucial to understanding language, then, is the idea of systematicity. Language as a system, however, is much more complex than the description. A true understanding of the complexity of language requires a robust method of analysis. More than anyone else in the modern era, it is Chomsky who has persuasively demonstrated that language as a system is amenable to scientific analysis and, in doing so...
View Full Document

  • Winter '20
  • Virtual University of Pakistan

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes