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B E M 4 3 5 1 U n i t V I I I P r o j e c t P a g e | 1 Columbia Southern University BEM 4351 Environmental Technology Unit VIII Essay 00/00/2019 Author:
B E M 4 3 5 1 U n i t V I I I P r o j e c t P a g e | 2 United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – Control of Mercury and Ammonia The EPA introduced the US Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program in 1995 and the ETV program concluded operations in 2014. The ETV Program established the testing protocols and verified the adherence, to requirements, for new technologies that could improve the protection of human health and the environment (Ashley, 2005.) Half of the verified technologies, considered by the ETV Program, were related to environmental monitoring including references to the hazards of ammonia and mercury found in the environment. Selecting the appropriate monitoring technology, for any given substance, is necessary in providing effective verification of the monitoring data. Environmental atmospheric ammonia is compounded by agricultural practices and farm animal waste. The Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) Centers were an outreach portion of the ETV program. AMS centers verified the performance of commercially available technologies which monitor natural species as well as contamination of the air, water and soil (Ashley, 2005.). In addition, AMS Centers were utilized in the study of ambient ammonia sensors to better understand their data as it related to agricultural activities. AMS Centers collaborated with the Department of Agriculture (USDA), to collect data, at USDS animal feeding operations on various testing activities. The AMS Centers also studied the new technology of mercury Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs.) Mercury CEMs provide measurements on mercury release to gain a better understanding of the various mercury emission sources and their effect on the environment (Ashley, 2005.). Three phases of mercury CEM verification testing were completed. In Phase I,
B E M 4 3 5 1 U n i t V I I I P r o j e c t P a g e | 3 the CEMs were used to measurement mercury performance in flue gases. Phase II verified CEM performance measurements related to a Toxic Substances Control Act incinerator. Finally, Phase III tested mercury CEMs at a coal-fired power plant. The use of CEMs will generate the data necessary to combat the ever-present dangers of various hazardous substances. Equation for Computing Water Flow Rate from Pipe Diameter – Application and Variables Computing the flow rate of a fluid (Q) can be defined as the fluid volume passing through a cross sectional area in a certain amount of time. The flow rate is measuring the amount of fluid volume passing through a sectional area in a certain amount of time and the equation for the volume flow rate can be written as: Q = Volume/time The variables related to this equation would include the fluid volume and the speed/time of the fluid. Changing one of these variables or both will help in determining the diameter of the pipe.

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