6th-5th century before Christ: philosophy began before that: different gods, only a few people had the truth, people were living kind of isolated around the same time in east and west philosophy began (Socrates/Buddha) ratio and ethics: elements we find in all philosophies (most important in the West) ethical/morality spiritual side (most in India, but also Socrates; but not as important as in India) epistemology: how do we acquire knowledge? (more for the west) is there permanent knowledge? For example, will mathematics still be the same in 1000 years? China: knowledge should be practical, we should be able to use it to organize society 1. Happiness Stress and loneliness => less happiness Mindfulness: part of Buddhism (so long before 1970ies) Dalai lama: a lot of people want to meet him; how does he remain so happy? Peace of mind makes him happy BUDDHA Lived according his own philosophy Showed people how to live to be happy/ peaceful Didn’t write anything down (same as Jesus, Socrates… all big philosophers) Theravada: things Buddha is supposed to have said, written down by his disciples/students Buddha believed in the will of a person, if someone wants to achieve something, he needs to have the will to achieve it (back in that time: social transformation in society: people living on the countryside, people were farming => cities started to develop, manufacturing and trade came into existence). Social reform => often new ways of thinking (what happened here with Buddha) How can we deal with problems of suffering and death (how can we live knowing we are going to die)? Felt unsatisfied with the existent way of thinking New idea: everyone can find the truth (not only rich people, with high education…) (same as Socrates) BUDDHA’S LIFE Met very old man, Buddha was shocked when he saw him Buddha asked carriage driver if he would be as old, carriage driver said maybe Next day: they see someone ill, and Buddha again asks what it is; again asks if he will become be like this, and answer is maybe Next day: dead man; again asks what; again asks if he’ll die; answer: certainly will die one day Next day: saw a recluse (man who lives his life isolated) who was in orange, and looked very serene/peaceful, and happy; question: how does he do, knowing he is going to die and maybe be ill?
Decides to leave palace to find out (CHECK STORY) => symbolic story tried mortification: didn’t work nobody could help him to find out => had to find out himself went sitting under a tree until he was going to find the truth => meditation: how did the recluse do?
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- Fall '19
- Buddhism, Noble Eightfold Path, Gautama Buddha