Unit 1 - River Valley Civilizations in the Middle East and Egypt - Unit 1 River Valley Civilizations in the Middle East and Egypt Reading and Study

Unit 1 - River Valley Civilizations in the Middle East and Egypt

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Unit 1 - River Valley Civilizations in the Middle East and Egypt Reading and Study Guide Terms: Always focus on the “who, what, when, where, and how” while taking notes. Most importantly, know why these terms matter: Prehistory Time before writing Look @ remains structures, and artifacts No set time of when it ended History Study interpretation, and transmission of records of past Interpretation of past records Study of records Looking @ lifestyle of civilization & what it says about their quality of life Historiography "History of history" "Told and retold" Analysis of historical works What do historians do? "Argue" Analysis sources to confirm their credibility Collaborate to make sure events make sense Source "Who wrote it? When? Why? Is there Bias?" Primary: Someone that was there (Sometimes good if there are a lot of accounts) Secondary: Info comes through another person (Sometimes good as this is what is used in the textbook) Studying records is most important form of source Close Read HISTORICAL APPROACH Analyze claims, evidence, or rhetoric Contextualize HISTORICAL APPROACH What relevant circumstances need 2 B considered @ time history was written Corroborate HISTORICAL APPROACH Do accounts line-up? "Story could B more complicated than it seems" Primary Sources Someone that is there Good if multiple accounts match-up Secondary Sources Information passed through someone else Less Bias What is used in textbook = Good source as info is generally checked among multiple sources Paleontology
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Study of fossils Shows how people fought Shows lifestyle (Diet, live, and bone structure) Archeology Study of artifacts (Trash/Rubbish) MOST reliable to learning about culture Artifacts Things left behind by a Civ. Trash/Rubbish Five Features of Civilization Advanced Cities Govt. Pop. Religion Business Residential Generally surrounded by farmland Complex Institutions Something built 2 serve purpose Help society function Job Specialization/Social Class Food surplus Higher ranked people Specified jobs in society Advanced Technology Bronze age or later Record Keeping Have records of past events Ziggurat MESOPOTAMIA Religious & Administrative Center/Temple of Mesopotamia Cuneiform MESOPOTAMIA Cultural characteristic of Mesopotamia Epic poems Information about religion, self-conception, and world views Narrative about a significant event Epic of Gilgamesh Gods say, "Enjoy this life, You're on a hopeless quest Gods think too many people being loud, so they want to exterminate mankind After life seemed 2 B a real downer People feel like gods don't care about them Afterlife is place of everlasting darkness Gods give Gilgamesh king and that they gave him power 2 rule over others Hammurabi "An eye for an eye"
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