Unformatted text preview: Cardiovascular Endurance Chapter 2
Kinesiology 215 Cardiorespiratory Endurance Describes our energy output Component that enhances the quality of life Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability to supply oxygen to working muscles over a period of time Four components of the CR System Heart, blood vessels, blood and lungs Function of the CR System Which side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs? Which side pumps oxygenated blood to the body? What are the vessels of the cardiovascular system? Left atrium and ventricle Arteries: carry blood away from the heart, smooth muscle helps maintain blood pressure Capillaries: connect arteries to veins, single cell wide and gas exchange takes place Veins: carry blood toward the heart, have valves to prevent backflow of blood Right atrium and ventricle Regulation of the CR System Cardiac Output: the volume of blood pumped per minute Average adult volume? Stroke Volume: amount of blood pumped per beat CO = dec HR X inc SV When the body exercises, how much blood is pumped per minute? With improved fitness, cardiac output will increase stroke volume and consequently decrease heart rate There is a maximum heart rate! HR max = 220 age Regulation (Continued) Maximum cardiac output is effected by maximum Heart rate Blood Pressure is also a factor HR max decreases with age What happens to COmax with age? Declines after age 20 Blood pressure: the force of blood against vessel walls Arterial (contraction) pressure is the systolic pressure Heart relaxes is the diastolic pressure Normal BP? 120/80 Borderline hypertensive? 140/90 Energy Systems Metabolism ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) ATPPC system 1 10 seconds sprint, jump, throw Anaerobic system 10 seconds3 minutes med. Sprint, hockey, base Aerobic system >3 minutes distance running, cycling, swimming Most activities combine anaerobic and aerobic systems Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2 max) Ability to utilize oxygen while working and removing CO2 Energy Systems (Continued) VO2 max is one of the best measures of cardiorespiratory endurance The higher your VO2 max, the more you can delay fatigueoxygen debt (This means you're more fit) You can recover from oxygen debt more quickly Can be measured in the lab or a field test (example: hook you up to a treadmill or stationary bike) Physiological Benefits of CR Endurance Greater CO: more blood, faster Longevity Improved VO2 max: produce more ATP Lowered blood pressure Reduced body fat, firm muscles Increased metabolism, remains elevated after exercise Increase HDL cholesterol, lower LDL Less bone mineral loss Curbing of appetite Acute/Chronic Changes with Aerobic Exercise Acute Increased metabolism Increase CO Systolic blood pressure Ventilation (respiratory rate) Muscle hypertrophy resulting in the slowing of digestion Chronic All return to normal quickly after exercise ends Increased metabolism due to increase in lean muscle mass Lower resting HR Increased SV Increased cellular activity Increased capillarization of muscle Improved oxygen utilization, muscle glycogen Must maintain over a lifespan or changes will revert back Aerobic Exercise Prescription Goals Short term (Set 2) Long term (set 2) Mode of Exercise Warmup Activity Period 510 minutes followed by stretching Overload principle Intensity (how hard) Warmdown Duration (how long) Frequency (how often) Aerobic and stretching RPE or Target Heart Rate range Types of Aerobic Exercise
High Aerobic Potential Aerobic dance Aerobic walking Bicycling CrossCountry skiing Hiking uphill Jogging Rope jumping Rowing Running Stair climbing Moderate Aerobic Potential Basketball Calisthenics Downhill skiing Field hockey Handball Racquetball Soccer Squash Tennis (singles) Low Aerobic Potential Archery Baseball Bowling Football Golf Softball Volleyball Swimming Implementing a Program Evaluate initial fitness level Schedule exercise as a part of your day Find a variety of modes Keep in target heart rate zone Start between 5002000 calories per week Be aware of overtraining Increase duration and frequency before intensity You don't want to lose more than 2 lbs per week 3500 calories = 1 lb Benefit to Risk Ratio Health Risks (Consult a physician) Sudden illness, hidden heart problems Stop exercising and contact MD if: Pain in the chest, under sternum, or radiating to the arm; also, any other unexplained pain Irregular pulse rate (flutters or rapid rate changes) Palpitations in the chest or throat Dizziness, lightheadedness, confusion or fainting Anything out of the ordinary Other Health Considerations Muscle soreness and injuries Delayed onset muscle soreness is normal 2448 hours later If it persists, the muscles have been worked too hard Rest Ice Compression Elevation Basic musculoskeletal injuries Most exercise injuries are caused by poor warmup, mechanics, equipment, increasing intensity or duration too quickly Preventing Injuries Warmup thoroughly Gradual progression Listen to your body RICE and ibuprofen Avoid poor biomechanical situations Running in one direction Running on slanted roads, downhill Poor shoes Avoid hard surfaces Substitute lower impact exercises Machines, swimming, walking Heat Illnesses Check temperature and humidity Adjust duration and intensity Exercise during cool times, in the shade and wear loose clothing Drink before, during and after exercise Replenish electrolytes (salt, potassium) Sedentary, overweight, older at greater risk Acclimatize ...
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- Spring '08
- kinesiology, heart rate