Gordon C. Bruner II. - Marketing scales handbook _ multi-item measures for consumer insight research - Marketing Scales Handbook Multi-Item Measures for

Gordon C. Bruner II. - Marketing scales handbook _ multi-item measures for consumer insight research

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Unformatted text preview: Marketing Scales Handbook Multi-Item Measures for Consumer Insight Research Volume 7 Gordon C. Bruner II Marketing Scales Handbook ……………………………………………… Multi-Item Measures for Consumer Insight Research Volume 7 (library version) Gordon C. Bruner II GCBII Productions, LLC Fort Worth, Texas USA Marketing Scales Handbook, Volume 7. Copyright © 2013, Gordon C. Bruner II. All rights reserved. ISBN-10: 0615846068 ISBN-13: 978-0-615-84606-4 Reviews of the measurement scales in this book are the intellectual property of Gordon C. Bruner II. Unless otherwise noted, ownership and copyright of the scales themselves is not clear. The overwhelming majority of scales can be used freely but citations of the original sources or some previous users is expected when reports or papers are written that refer to the scales. Published by: GCBII Productions, LLC 6109 Timberwolfe Lane Fort Worth, Texas 762135 USA [email protected] 817-677-8876 Published in the United States of America. Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . Preface Acknowledgements Introduction Scale # 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. x xii xiii Name Page # Absorption Disposition Acceptance of Sexual Violence Accountability Degree Acculturation Aesthetic Appeal Aesthetic Formality Affective Response (Negative) Agentic Orientation Ambivalence of Product Evaluation Ambivalence Toward the Object Anger Anger Anger at the Service Provider Anthropomorphizing Anticipated Saving Success Anxiety (General) Anxiety (Service Usage) Anxiety (Technological) Anxiety (Technological) Attachment to the Brand (Brand-Self Connection) Attachment to the Brand (Passion) Attachment to the Brand (Prominence) Attendance Likelihood Attitude Confidence Attitude Toward a Debt Consolidation Loans Attitude Toward a Low Price Guarantee (Information Focus) Attitude Toward a Low Price Guarantee (Protection Focus) Attitude Toward a Self-Designed Product Attitude Toward Brands in a Product Class Attitude toward Christmas Attitude Toward Code Switching Attitude Toward "Green" Marketing Claims (Believability) Attitude Toward "Green" Products (Environmental Benefits) Attitude Toward "Green" Products (Expensive) i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. Attitude Toward Homosexuality Attitude Toward Offshore Services (Communication Problem) Attitude Toward Offshore Services (Customer-Foreign-Worker Disconnect) Attitude Toward Offshore Services (Data Security) Attitude Toward Offshore Services (Foreign Worker Enmity) Attitude Toward Offshore Services (Free-Trade Resentment) Attitude Toward Playing the Game Attitude Toward Product-Related Environmental Claims (Skepticism) Attitude Toward the Act (Opening Account) Attitude Toward the Ad (Affective) Attitude Toward the Ad (Believability) Attitude Toward the Ad (Focused Nostalgia) Attitude Toward the Ad (General Nostalgia) Attitude Toward the Ad (Informativeness) Attitude Toward the Ad (Intrusiveness) Attitude Toward the Ad (Novelty) Attitude Toward the Ad (Pre-Birth Era Nostalgia) Attitude Toward the Ad (Usefulness) Attitude Toward the Ad (Violence) Attitude Toward the Brand (Capabilities) Attitude Toward the Brand (Hatred) Attitude Toward the Company (General) Attitude Toward the Company (Social Responsibility) Attitude Toward the Investment (Riskiness) Attitude Toward the Investment (Value) Attitude Toward the Logo (Clarity) Attitude Toward the Logo (Interestingness) Attitude Toward the Low Price Claim (Customer-Oriented) Attitude Toward the Low Price Claim (Self-Serving) Attitude Toward the Movie (General) Attitude Toward the Organization (Admiration) Attitude Toward the Product (Symbolic) Attitude Toward the Product (Utilitarian) Attitude Toward the Product Placement Attitude Toward the Product-Brand (Hedonic) Attitude Toward the Product-Brand (Utilitarian) Attitude Toward the Salesperson Attitude Toward the Sponsorship Attitude Toward the Text Attitude Toward the Website (Design) Attitude Toward the Website (Image) Attitude Toward the Website (Online Community) Attitude Toward the Website (Security) ii 36 37 39 41 43 45 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 78 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. Attitude Toward the Website (Shopping Enjoyment) Attitude Toward Word-of-Mouth (On-line) Attractiveness Behavioral Activation System Behavioral Control Behavioral Control Over the Disease Behavioral Inhibition System Belief in Karma Body Size Brand Bias (Domestic vs. Foreign) Brand Familiarity Brand Foreignness Brand Personality Appeal (Clarity) Brand Personality Appeal (Favorability) Brand Personality Appeal (Originality) Brand Popularity Brand Relevance (Risk Reduction Function) Brand Relevance (Social Demonstrance Function) Brand Relevance in Category Brand Switcher Cart Abandonment (Concern about Order Costs) Cart Abandonment (Concern about Privacy-Security) Cart Abandonment (Search for Better Price) Cart Abandonment Frequency Cart Usage as a Decision Tool Cause Participation Intention Cause-Related Marketing Motive Attributions (Serving Society) Choice Confusion Choice Difficulty Choice Freedom Cognitive Resource Demands Cognitive Resource Demands Commitment to the Brand Commitment to the Relationship Commitment to the Relationship Communal Orientation Communication Competence Competence Competence Complexity of Calculation Task Complexity of the Product Confidence (General) Confidence in the Company Confidence in the Socio-Political System Congruence (General) iii 87 88 89 90 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 107 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. Connectedness (General Social) Connectedness with an Individual Conscientiousness Consensus of Reviews Consequences of Unhealthy Behaviors Contact Frequency Irritation Convenience of the Transaction (Digital) Creativity Deal Exclusivity Deal Exclusivity Justification Debt Consolidation Loans (Non-Interest Issues Importance) Decision-Making Style (Head vs. Heart) Design Ability Desirability of the Food Difficulty of the Task Difficulty of the Task Discomfort (Psychological) Disconfirmation Sensitivity Disidentification (Consumer) Disidentification (National) Effectiveness of Disease Detection Efficacy (Recycling) Effort to Receive Sales Promotion Benefit (Post-purchase) Effort to Receive Sales Promotion Benefit (Pre-purchase) Emergent Nature Emotional Contagion Susceptibility Emotional Display Response (Negative) Emotional Display Response (Positive) Emotional Information Management (Control) Emotional Information Management (Empathy) Emotional Information Management (Optimism) Emotional Information Management (Recognition) Emotional Receptivity Engagement with the Ad Environmentalism Ethnic Identification Evaluation of Another Person's Attitude (Incorrect) Event-Sponsor Congruence Faith in Intuition Financial Harmony Fit (General) Flirting Superiority Flow (On-line) Frustration with the Service Provider Gentleness of the Product iv 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. Goal Attainment Motivation Greediness of the Company Guilt Health Motivation Helplessness Imagery Elaboration (Ad Evoked) Implicit Person Theory Individualism-Collectivism Innovativeness (Open Processing) Innovativeness (Product Trial) Innovativeness (Technological) Intention to Recommend Internet Shopping (Importance of Merchandise Variety) Internet Shopping (Importance of Off-line Presence) Internet Shopping (Importance of Price Orientation) Internet Shopping (Importance of Website Attractiveness) Internet Shopping Motivation (Affiliation) Internet Shopping Motivation (Convenience) Internet Shopping Motivation (Early Adoption) Internet Shopping Motivation (Personalized Notification) Internet Shopping Motivation (Price Negotiation) Internet Shopping Motivation (Stimulation Seeking) Involvement in the Study Involvement in the Task Involvement with Crafts Involvement with Running Involvement with the Brand (Signaling) Involvement with the Reading Task Joy (Malicious) Justice (Interactional) Justice (Procedural) Knowledge (Subjective) Knowledge of Brands in a Product Class Knowledge of Video Game Consoles Lead User (Domain Specific) Life Change Likeability of the Offer Loan Management Intentions Locus of Control (General) Long-Term Orientation (Planning) Low Price Guarantee Trust Violation Market Mavenism Market Mavenism Market Share Estimate Material Possession Love (Commitment) v 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 192 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 225 226 228 229 230 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240. 241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. 252. 253. 254. 255. 256. 257. Material Possession Love (Intimacy) Material Possession Love (Passion) Meaningfulness (General) Memory Quality Mood (General) Need for Affect (Approach) Need for Unique Products Need for Uniqueness (Consumer's) Need for Uniqueness (General) Novelty (General) Observability of Product Usage Outcomes Opportunity Cost Consideration Originality Ownership (Perceived) Participation (Customer with Service Provider) Participation Benefits (Relational) Participation Benefits (Service Quality) Perfectionism Personal Cultural Orientation (Ambiguity Intolerance) Personal Cultural Orientation (Gender Equality) Personal Cultural Orientation (Independence) Personal Cultural Orientation (Interdependence) Personal Cultural Orientation (Masculinity) Personal Cultural Orientation (Power) Personal Cultural Orientation (Prudence) Personal Cultural Orientation (Risk Aversion) Personal Cultural Orientation (Social Inequality) Personal Cultural Orientation (Tradition) Persuasiveness of the Ad Power Distance Power Distance Power Over a Company Price Promotion Entitlement Pride Pride Product Disposal Intention Product Evaluation (Food) Product Evaluation (Food) Product Evaluation (Self-Designed) Product Failure Blame Attribution Product Failure Blame Attribution Product Failure Severity Product Failure Severity Product Usage Barriers Product Usage Frequency vi 231 232 233 234 235 236 238 240 242 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 256 257 258 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 281 282 258. 259. 260. 261. 262. 263. 264. 265. 266. 267. 268. 269. 270. 271. 272. 273. 274. 275. 276. 277. 278. 279. 280. 281. 282. 283. 284. 285. 286. 287. 288. 289. 290. 291. 292. 293. 294. 295. 296. 297. 298. 299. 300. 301. Propensity to Plan Purchase Intention at the Website Purchase Urgency Readiness for a Task Recycling Intention Reflection Regret (Anticipated) Relational Benefits (Economic) Relational Worth (Acquiescence) Relational Worth (Advocacy) Relational Worth (Honesty) Relational Worth (Immunity) Relational Worth (Openness) Relationship with the Company (Mutual Acceptance) Religiosity (Evangelical) Repurchase Intention Retaliatory Behavior (Complaining for Publicity) Retaliatory Behavior (Revenge) Retaliatory Behavior (Vindictive Complaining) Reward Policies (Controlling) Rhythm Risk (General) Risk (General) Risk (Performance) Role Clarity (Customer) Sales Promotion Preference Satisfaction with Service Satisfaction with Stock Portfolio Satisfaction with the Relationship Second-Hand Shopping Motivation (Avoidance of Traditional Outlets) Second-Hand Shopping Motivation (Economic) Second-Hand Shopping Motivation (Nostalgia) Second-Hand Shopping Motivation (Socializing) Second-Hand Shopping Motivation (Treasure Hunting) Security Importance Self-Appraisal Self-Consciousness (Public) Self-Efficacy (Product Evaluation) Self-Efficacy (Services) Self-Esteem (State) Self-Monitoring (Ability to Modify Self-Presentation) Self-Monitoring (Sensitivity to the Expressive Behavior of Others) Self-Regulatory Focus (Overall) Self-Regulatory Focus (Prevention) vii 283 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 303 304 305 306 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 324 325 326 328 330 331 332 302. 303. 304. 305. 306. 307. 308. 309. 310. 311. 312. 313. 314. 315. 316. 317. 318. 319. 320. 321. 322. 323. 324. 325. 326. 327. 328. 329. 330. 331. 332. 333. 334. 335. 336. 337. 338. 339. 340. 341. 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. Self-Regulatory Focus (Promotion) Self-service Technology Quality (Customization) Self-service Technology Quality (Enjoyment) Self-service Technology Quality (Functionality) Service Convenience (Access) Service Convenience (Usage) Service Quality of the Website Shame Shopping Motivation (Role Enactment) Shopping Orientation (Spatial Economic) Shopping Orientation (Temporal Economic) Shopping Skill Side Effects Likelihood Side Effects Severity Similarity (Self to Other) Similarity to Another Person Similarity to the Story Character Skepticism Skepticism Toward a Store's Promotion Smoking Intention Smoking-Related Beliefs (Attractiveness) Social Comparison Orientation Sophistication Speed of Transaction (Digital) Spendthrift-Tightwad Store Image Strength of the Product Switching Costs (General) Temporal Orientation (Future) Temporal Orientation (Future) Temporal Orientation (Future) Temporal Orientation (Past) Temporal Orientation (Present) Temporal Proximity Trust in the Brand Underdog (External Disadvantage) Underdog (Passion & Determination) Uniqueness Threat (Consumer's) Usefulness of the Object Usefulness of the Product Value (Social) Value of the Celebrity's Possession Value of the Transaction Video Game Playing Frequency Video Game Violence viii 334 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 359 360 361 363 364 365 366 367 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 381 382 384 385 347. 348. 349. 350. 351. 352. 353. 354. 355. 356. 357. 358. 359. 360. 361. 362. 363. 364. Visual Aesthetics Centrality Warmth (General) Website Consultation Intention Website Interactivity (Control) Website Revisit Intention Website Search Intention Website Service Quality (Efficiency) Website Service Quality (Fulfillment) Website Service Quality (Privacy) Website Service Quality (System Availability) Website Usage (Instrumental Need) Website Usage (Relational Need) Willpower Word of Mouth (Hypothetical) Word-of-Mouth (Hypothetical) Word-of-Mouth (Negative) Word-of-Mouth (Support Seeking) Word-of-Mouth Intention (Positive) About the Author 386 388 389 390 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 ix Preface . . . . . How exciting it is to produce the seventh volume in Marketing Scales Handbook series! I did not imagine such a long-lived series was being started when we were working on that first volume in 1989. The problem then was figuring out how to get the book written and published. After all of this time, the work has become more routine and yet, there are still challenges to getting each volume done. For those who have been aware of the release dates of the past volumes in the series, they may realize that this one is being published relatively soon after the previous one. The primary reason for this timing is that I am catching up after being so behind in years past. In other words, the ideal is for scales to be reviewed, assembled into a book, and then released relatively soon after the journal articles containing the scales have been published. When I was working full-time in academia, that ideal was not achievable. I was not able to review scales fast enough to keep up with all of the ones being published. Since my retirement a year ago, however, I have been able to make a lot of progress in reducing the backlog. It has become more realistic for me to review scales sooner after they are published, add them to the database, and release another volume when a reasonable number of reviews have been completed. This way, the reviews are made available to researchers while the constructs they refer to are still "fresh" in the discipline rather than several years later when research interest may have waned. There were several things I did in preparing this volume to assist me in catching up, the first of which was to focus on scales from a two year period rather than four as previous volumes have. The scales reviewed in this volume are from articles published in 2010 and 2011. Though it might be assumed that just two years would have too few scales to justify a volume, the 364 measures reviewed here prove otherwise. As explained in more detail in the Introduction, there were other ways I raised the bar this time to limit the number of reviews that would be included. Some scales were ignored or treated as “see also” if enough uses of them had been reported in past volumes. Another way to limit my work was to ignore some scales that, while being unique and not reviewed in the past, were deemed to be “me too” measures of constructs for which a reasonable number of scales had already been reviewed. The effect of these inclusion criteria is that the majority of the reviews in this volume are of scales that are only known to have been reported in one article. A small number have been used a few times but, unlike Volume 5 in particular, there are no scales that have been reported in more than five articles from the domain of literature reviewed. That is why most of the reviews in this volume are only one page long and the book is able to fit 364 scales into just a little over 400 pages. By the way, those interested in which scales have been used the most over time are urged to see the little book I released earlier this year that focuses on that very issue (Marketing Scales Handbook: The Top 20 Multi-Item Measures Used in Consumer Research, available at Amazon). x As with Volumes 5 and 6, one of the benefits of this ebook format is that it is much easier for users to find information of interest compared to the effort required with a paper book. A Table of Contents is included but users are urged to utilize the Find function that should be available in the software being used to read the book. Other benefits of the book being in a digital format are the ability to highlight passages that you consider important to your purpose, being able to leave comments for yourself on the pages of the text, and the ease with which scale items can be copied from a review and placed into a questionnaire. While I encourage researchers to use these scales, I urge them to credit those authors who created a scale or, in those cases where the origin is unknown, to at least cite some of the authors who have previously used it. While getting permission to use another researcher’s scale is rarely necessary in the marketing discipline, users are expected to give credit when measures are not their own because they are building upon other researchers’ work. Finally, work has begun on scales that appeared in artic...
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