Spontaneous Reactions and ATP.docx - The Free-Energy Change...

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The Free-Energy Change of a Reaction Tells Us Whether or not the Reaction Occurs Spontaneously Want to know which processes are spontaneous without assessing energy and entropy changes in entire universe for each separate reaction Free-Energy Change (ΔG), Stability, and Equilibrium Free energy (Gibbs free energy): the portion of a system’s energy that can perform work when temp and pressure are uniform throughout the system ΔG = G final state - G initial state ΔG < 0 : spontaneous System has to lose free energy from initial to final state Less free energy means more stable - less likely to change The released free energy can be harnessed to do work Ex: gravitational motion, diffusion, chemical reaction (glucose to simpler molecules) Chemical equilibrium at state of maximum stability G at lowest possible value System at equilibrium can do no work (cannot spontaneously change) Any change from equilibrium will have +ΔG, so this change would be nonspontaneous
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