35611.ppt - Malaria Case Management Dr Radha Kulkarni MBBS...

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Malaria Case Management Dr. Radha Kulkarni MBBS, DTM&H, MPH
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Dr. Radha Kulkarni MBBS, DTM&H, MPH Since 1991 to 2006 has worked in Zimbabwe in malaria endemic areas. Worked as A/Provincial Medical Director, Provincial Epidemiology and Disease Control Officer, Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, Zimbabwe. Has worked as Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist for TB Control Program in The Gambia, West Africa (GFATM ). Has also worked in Islamic Republic of Iran during the revolution and then during the Iran-Iraq war (1977 -1988).
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Introduction Malaria continues to be a major global health problem, with over 40% of the world’s population – more than 2400 million people – exposed to varying degrees of malaria risk in some 100 countries. Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults in tropical countries. Mortality, currently estimated at over a million people per year, has risen in recent years, probably due to increasing resistance to the various anti-malarial medicines. Effective Malaria Control requires an integrated approach comprising of prevention measures including IPT and the use of ITNs, ITMs, LLINs, vector control and early treatment with effective anti-malarials. The affordable and widely available anti-malarial chloroquin that was in the past a mainstay of malaria control is now ineffective in most Falciparum Malaria endemic areas, and resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine is also increasing rapidly in some of various countries. The discovery and development of the artemisinin derivatives in China, have provided a new class of highly effective antimalarials, and have already transformed the chemotherapy of malaria. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are now generally considered as the best current treatment for uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria.
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Malaria - Introduction Malaria is caused by infection of red blood cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium . The parasites are inoculated into the human host by a feeding female anopheline mosquito. The four Plasmodium species that infect humans are P. falciparum , P. vivax , P. ovale and P. malariae . The initial symptoms of malaria are nonspecific and similar to the symptoms of a minor systemic viral illness. Symptoms comprise of : headache, lassitude, fatigue, abdominal discomfort and muscle and joint aches, followed by fever, chills, perspiration, anorexia, vomiting and worsening malaise. This is the typical picture of uncomplicated malaria. Residents of endemic areas are often familiar with this combination of symptoms, and frequently self-diagnose. Malaria is therefore frequently over-diagnosed on the basis of symptoms alone. This is often the case during the first month of winter which coincides with influenza outbreaks.
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