MT 2 cheat sheet.docx - Construct validity threats observer expectancy sol Train observers by est inter-rater reliability have 2 ppl clearly define

MT 2 cheat sheet.docx - Construct validity threats observer...

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Construct validity threats - observer expectancy - sol: Train observers by est inter-rater reliability & have 2+ ppl; clearly define behaviors - observers can affect what they see: self-fulfilling prophecy - sol: blind observer (unaware of hyp and which grp participant is in) - observer effects (hawthorne effect) - sol: be unobtrusive; allow time to acclimate Open ended q’s - gives info in participants own words - hard to compare against other participants Closed - “forces” a choice between limited options - must already know all/ most of possible answers - yes/no; MC (choices should be exhaustive = account for all possibilities; mutally exclusive = no overlap); force-alternative (two extreme choices; no fence-sitting; score range from 0-10); likert-type scales (given a graduated range of response choices with ‘eq intervals’; uses odd #s with one neutral; makes strong statements) Writing survey q’s – avoid… - asking about unknown info - leading questions: “you disapprove of the biased, horrible way that television news covers the the abortion issue, don’t you? - double-barreled items: asks about two separate variables - long q’s - negation: “do you not like it when students don’t study” - best way to know survey is effective = pretesting Response sets - mental shortcuts that influence the way people answer - ex: acquienscence or naysaying; social desirability/ faking bad; extremity aversion - control them by including additional extremes; reverse wording and coding; look for inconsistencies Validated inventory
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  • Winter '07
  • Nitzberg

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